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西太平洋岛弧-弧后盆地热液活动与硫化物特征
王国槐, 李传顺, 杜德文, 张海桃
国家海洋局第一海洋研究所
摘要:
西太平洋板块转换边界复杂的火山与构造环境孕育了全球最显著的岛弧-弧后盆地热液活动系统。本文基于国内外研究成果对西太平洋岛弧-弧后盆地热液活动的分布规律、扩张速率、水深以及热液硫化物的矿物组成与金属品位特征进行探讨。西太平洋岛弧-弧后盆地热液硫化物区以活动型热液区为主,受扩张速率的影响明显主要分布在20-60mm/a地区;水深分布规律主要受所处构造单元的水深特征控制,而非由热液硫化物区的形成特征所决定;研究区内的热液产物主要为富Zn-Cu、富Ba-Zn以及富Fe-Cu型硫化物;热液硫化物中冲绳海槽具有最高的Ag、Pb含量,劳海盆具有最高的Zn含量,马努斯海盆和伊豆-小笠原-马里亚纳海槽具有较高的Au含量,北斐济海盆具有最高的Cu含量。
关键词:  热液活动  硫化物  岛弧-弧后盆地  西太平洋
DOI:10.11759/hykx20180607002
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
The Characteristics of Hydrothermal Activities and Sulfides in the Arc and Back-Arc Basin Systems,Western Pacific
wang guo huai, li chuan shun, du de wen, zhang hai tao
First Institute of Oceanographer, SOA
Abstract:
Arc and back-arc basin systems in Western Pacific with complex volcanic and tectonic settings of convergent margins have presented a most prominent seafloor hydrothermal activities in global. Based on reviewing the results of domestic and international investigations and studies on the hydrothermal activities, this study has summarized the tectonic environment including geographical distributions, water depths and spreading rates, and the mineral constituents and metal-grade in hydrothermal sulfides in the arc and back-arc basin systems in Western Pacific. We suggested that hydrothermal sulfide sites in Western Pacific mainly belong to active hydrothermal fields and most of them are distributing in the regions with spreading rates of 20-60mm/a. Meanwhile, water depth distributions of hydrothermal fields are dominantly controlled by the tectonic unions in which they are situated, but not by the formation characteristics of sulfides. Furthermore, the hydrothermal sulfides mainly consist of Zn-Cu-sulfides, Ba-sulfides and Fe-Cu-sulfides, according to statistics, hydrothermal sulfides in Okinawa trough are richest in Ag and Pb, Lau basin possess the highest enrichment degree of Zn, Manus basin and Izu-Bonin-Mariana have the highest Au contents, and North Fiji basin has the highest constituents of Cu.
Key words:  Hydrothermal activity  Sulfide  Island arc and back arc basin  Western Pacific
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