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滨海湿地土地覆盖面向对象分类及变化监测
邵亚婷, 卢霞
淮海工学院
摘要:
基于1973-2018年期间的6期遥感影像数据利用面向对象的分类方法提取江苏盐城湿地珍禽国家级自然保护区核心区的土地覆盖分类信息,进而利用土地转移矩阵分析近45年来盐城保护区核心区土地覆盖变化规律。研究表明:在1973-2018年期间,研究区土地覆盖类型由海到陆依次为海水、光滩、河流、米草、碱蓬、茅草、芦苇和养殖区。土地覆盖变化总体上表现为:光滩大面积减少,变化类型是光滩→碱蓬群落→米草群落,主要集中在研究区中部地区。茅草群落自2008年消失,变化类型是茅草群落→芦苇群落→养殖区,主要集中在研究区的西南和西北部地区。碱蓬群落明显减少,主要转变为芦苇和米草群落,集中在研究区中部地区;西部靠近海堤的变化类型是碱蓬群落→芦苇群落,东部靠近光滩的变化类型是碱蓬群落→米草群落。养殖区大面积增加,集中在研究区西南部地区;芦苇群落明显增加,集中在研究区西部和西北部地区。结果分析认为,盐城滨海湿地保护区核心区土地覆盖类型在近45年来变化显著,尤其是人工湿地养殖区的分布范围明显增加,这可能对滨海湿地生态系统健康与可持续发展造成一定影响,应尽快改变滨海湿地保护区核心区的开发利用方式。
关键词:  面向对象  土地覆盖  变化监测  江苏盐城  滨海湿地
DOI:10.11759/hykx20190704001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41506106);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目;2019年江苏省研究生实践创新计划项目“滨海湿地植被演替特征空间变化研究(SJCX19_0975)”;2018年江苏省研究生实践创新计划项目“盐城滨海湿地植被动态及驱动因素研究(SJCX18_0919)”;江苏省海洋技术品牌专业建设项目(PPZY2015B116);2018年江苏省大学生实践创新训练计划项目“江苏盐城沿海湿地土地利用/覆盖变化与驱动力分析”
Object-oriented Classification and Change Detectionof Land Cover in Coastal Wetland
SHAO Yating, LU Xia
Huaihai Institute of Technology
Abstract:
Based on six remote sensing images during 1973 to 2018, the land cover classification information of the Core Area of Rare Bird National Nature Reserve in Yancheng coastal wetland, Jiangsu Province was retrieved by object-oriented classification method, and then the land transfer matrix was used to analyze the characteristics of land cover change in the Core Area of Yancheng Nature Reserve in the past 45 years. The results showed that during 1973-2018, the land cover types from sea to land were seawater, mudflat, river, Spartina, Suaeda salsa, Thatch grass, reed and aquaculture area respectively. The qualitive characteristics of land cover change were as follows: the mudflat decreased in a large scale, and the change pattern was from mudflat to Suaeda salsa community and then to Spartina community, mainly concentrated in the central part of the study area. The Thatch grass community disappeared in 2008, and the change pattern was from Thatch grass community to reed community and then to aquaculture areas, mainly concentrated in the southwest and northwest of the study area. The community of Suaeda salsa decreased significantly, mainly transformed into reed and Spartina communities, concentrated in the central part of the study area; the change type near the seawall in the West was from Suaeda salsa community to reed community, while the change type near the beach in the East was from Suaeda salsa community to Spartina community. A large area of aquaculture area was concentrated in the southwestern part of the study area, and the reed communities increased significantly in the western and northwestern regions of the study area. The results also were indicated that the land cover types in the Core Area of Yancheng Nature Reserve have changed significantly in the past 45 years, especially the spatial distribution of aquaculture areas has increased significantly, which may have a certain impact on the health and sustainable development of coastal wetland ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary to change the way of development and utilization of land resources in the Core Area of Yancheng Nature Reserve as soon as possible.
Key words:  object-oriented  land cover  change detection  Yancheng, Jiangsu Province  coastal wetland
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