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钻井液特征污染物的毒性评估和海洋测试生物的适用性比较
刘卫丽1, 余露军2, 李建军2, 张磊3, 陈小曲2
1.中海油田服务股份有限公司;2.广东省实验动物监测所;3.北京天泰志远科技股份有限公司
摘要:
随着海上钻井数量的逐年增加,钻井液的使用量迅速增加,与之相关的环境危害引起了广泛关注,因此有必要筛选合适的毒性测试生物和开发环境友好的钻井液。本研究中,按照ISO 11348-1(2007)、GB / T 21805-2008和GB / T 18420.2-2009的毒性测试方法,采用标准的海洋测试生物,包括发光细菌(Vibrio fischeri)、牟氏角毛藻(Chaetoceros muelleri)、诸氏鲻虾虎鱼(Mugilogobius chulae)、凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)、卤虫(Artemia)、蒙古裸腹溞(Moina mongolica),研究了钻井废液特征污染物(苯酚、七水硫酸锌、氯化汞)以及参比毒物十二烷基硫酸钠(Sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS)的急性毒性效应。结果表明,钻井液特征污染物对六种海洋生物的急性毒性效应有所不同:Hg2+对海洋生物表现为极高毒性,Zn2+、SDS表现为中、高毒性,苯酚表现为中、低毒性;六种海洋生物对四种特征污染物的敏感性顺序为:蒙古裸腹溞>诸氏鲻虾虎鱼>卤虫>凡纳滨对虾>发光细菌>牟氏角毛藻;诸氏鲻虾虎鱼与卤虫、凡纳滨对虾种间毒性相关性显著,蒙古裸腹溞与发光细菌、凡纳滨对虾种间毒性相关性显著。上述研究结果为环保型海洋钻井液开发和钻井废液生物毒性评价中受试生物的选择提供了基础数据。
关键词:  钻井废液  急性毒性  测试生物
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:中海油田服务股份有限公司项目《油化科研平台能力提升建设》(编号: YHB20YF014)
Toxicity evaluation of drilling fluid characteristic pollutants and applicability comparison of marine toxicity test organisms
LIU Weili1, YU Lujun2, LI Jianjun2, ZHANG Lei3, CHEN Xiaoqu2
1.China Oilfield Services Limited;2.Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute;3.Beijing Tiantai Zhiyuan Technology Co,Ltd
Abstract:
As the number of offshore drilling increases year by year, the use of drilling fluids has increased rapidly. The environmental hazards associated with drilling waste have drawn a great deal of attention. Therefore it is necessary to select eco-friendly drilling fluid additives and screen for suitable bioindicators. In the present study, The toxicity of ZnSO4?7H2O, HgCl2, phenol and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were conducted in accordance with ISO 11348-1 (2007) and the Chinese national standards GB/T 21805-2008 and GB/T 18420.2-2009. Standardised marine test organisms were used, including the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri, the cladoceran Moina mongolica, the anostracan Artemia salina, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and the fish Mugilogobius chulae, all highly sensitive species. The results showed that Hg2+ is extremely toxic to six marine organisms, Zn2+ and SDS are moderately and highly toxic, and phenol exhibits moderate to low toxicity. The order of species sensitivity to drilling fluid characteristic pollutants was: M. mongolica>M. chulae>Artemia>L. vannamei>V. fischeri,>C. muelleri. There were significant correlations among M. chulae , Artemia, and L. vannamei, between M. mongolica, V. fischeri, and L. vannamei. It aids to the choice of test aquatic organisms in the toxicity evaluation of drilling fluids.
Key words:  drilling waste  acute toxicity  test organisms
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