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海底热液成因含金属沉积物的研究现状及展望
朱启宽, 周怀阳
同济大学
摘要:
海底热液成因含金属沉积物广泛分布于全球各大洋与弧后活动扩张中心、大洋玄武岩上覆沉积层的底部以及板内火山的顶部等区域。块状硫化物烟囱体经氧化蚀变发生再沉积作用、热液羽流的扩散和沉降作用或低温弥散流的直接沉淀均可形成含金属沉积物。尽管不同热液区的含金属沉积物在矿物和化学组成上具有一定的差异,但其相对正常远洋沉积物均表现为富含Fe、Mn并亏损 Al 和Ti等组分,其中的主要矿物通常为结晶程度较差的铁锰氧化物/氢氧化物和富铁蒙脱石(绿脱石)。自上世纪七十年代末发现现代海底热液活动以来,大量的研究不仅基本明确了含金属沉积物的形成机制,还在与之相关的微生物矿化作用和自生粘土矿物的成因研究等方面取得了重要的进展。对含金属沉积物开展综合研究,确定其鉴别分类标准,既能丰富人们对海底热液循环系统、热液活动对全球海洋热和化学通量的贡献以及对海底深部生物圈的认识,也可为寻找多金属硫化物矿床、揭示古板块中类似矿床的成因和分布规律以及探索古海洋环境演化等提供重要信息。
关键词:  含金属沉积物, 热液活动, 铁氧化物, 微生物矿化, 绿脱石
DOI:10.11759/hykx20191221001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目),国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)
Reviews and Prospects on Submarine Metalliferous Sediments of Hydrothermal Origin
zhuqikuan, zhouhuaiyang
Tongji University
Abstract:
Submarine metalliferous sediments of hydrothermal origin widely occur in the global ocean and back-arc spreading centers, the basal sedimentary layers overlying oceanic basalts, and the top of intraplate volcanos. Metalliferous sediments can be formed by oxidative weathering and re-deposition of massive sulfide chimney, hydrothermal plume diffusion and sedimentation or direct precipitation from low-temperature diffusive flow. Metalliferous sediments are mainly composed of poorly-crystallized Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide and Fe-rich smectite (nontronite). Although there are obvious regional differences in compositions of metalliferous sediments from various hydrothermal fields, they usually are characterized by the enrichment in metallic elements such as Fe, Mn, and depletion in Al and Ti, compared with pelagic sediments. Since the discovery of modern submarine hydrothermal activity in the late 1970s, the formation mechanism of metalliferous sediments have been clarified, and important advances on microbial mineralization and origins of authigenic clay mineral also have been made. The comprehensive study of metalliferous sediments and explication of their identification criteria can not only enrich our understanding of seafloor hydrothermal system, and its heat and chemical fluxes to global ocean, and the deep biosphere, but also provide insights into tracing polymetallic sulphide deposits, revealing the origin and distribution of their ancient analogues on paleo-plates, and exploring the evolution of paleo-oceanographical environment.
Key words:  metalliferous sediments, hydrothermal activity, Fe-oxide, bio-mineralization, nontronite
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