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深海综合观测浮标研制及其在热带西太平洋的应用
陈永华, 于非, 刘庆奎, 姜斌, 姜静波, 倪佐涛, 李晓龙, 胡贺岗, 任强
中国科学院海洋研究所
摘要:
目前尽管国内近海浮标实现了产品化,但深远海尚无定型可靠的深海综合观测浮标系统,基于此,中国科学院海洋研究所设计制作了深海综合观测浮标系统,其浮标体为柱台型结构,采用单点锚泊系留。整个系统主要由浮标体、系留子系统、观测子系统、数据采集处理控制子系统、通信子系统、供电子系统、检测子系统、安全报警子系统和岸基数据接收处理子系统等9部分组成。浮标系统通过搭载不同类型的传感器,实现对风速/风向、气温、相对湿度、气压、能见度、雨量、波浪、表层水温、表层盐度、表层溶解氧、表层叶绿素、表层浊度、剖面流速流向、剖面温盐深(最大深度可达1000米)、方位及浮标位置等要素进行观测,从而完成对海洋气象、水文和水质等要素的长期、连续、自动监测,并支持铱星和北斗等卫星通信方式,将观测数据实时的传输到岸基数据接收处理系统。近年来,深海综合观测浮标系统在热带西太平洋海域连续进行了4次海上应用,每次应用时间长达一年。它提供了第一手的大洋上层和海气界面长时间序列的实时连续观测资料,促进了关于气候变化和深海大洋的研究工作。所研制的深海浮标达到目前国际同类产品(美国ATLAS浮标、日本TRITON浮标)的先进水平,并且在水下感应耦合传输等方面进行了创新,形成了自有特色。
关键词:  深海综合观测  浮标系统  剖面温盐深流  锚泊系统  水下数据感应耦合传输
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200327005
分类号:O432
基金项目:科技部重点研发计划项目(项目号2016YFC1402602和2017YFC1403401),中科院重大科研装备研制项目(项目号YZ201522和YZ201625)
Design and development of the deep-sea buoys and their applications in the tropical western Pacific
Chen Yonghua, Yu Fei, Liu Qingkui, Jiang Bin, Jiang jingbo, Ni Zuotao, Li Xiaolong, Hu Hegang, Ren Qiang
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
At present, although domestic offshore buoys have been commercialized, there is no reliable deep-sea comprehensive observation buoy system that has been in the deep sea. Based on this, the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences has designed and manufactured a comprehensive deep-sea observation buoy system. Its body is a pedestal-type structure, which is moored by a single point. The entire system consists of 9 parts, including the buoy body, the mooring, the observation subsystem, the data acquisition processing and system control subsystem, the communication subsystem, the power supply subsystem, the test subsystem, the security alarm subsystem, and the shore-based data receiving and processing subsystem. The buoy system is equipped with different types of sensors to observe wind speed / wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, visibility, rainfall, waves, surface water temperature, surface salinity, surface dissolved oxygen, surface chlorophyll, surface turbidity, profile velocity and direction, profile temperature, salt and depth (maximum depth can reach 1000 meters), direction and buoy position and other factors. That is the long-term, continuous and automatic monitoring of marine meteorology, hydrology and water quality can be completed. Through the satellite communication methods such as Iridium and Beidou, the observation data is transmitted to the shore-based data receiving and processing system in real time. In recent years, the deep-sea integrated observation buoy system has been used for four consecutive sea applications in the tropical western Pacific, with each application lasting up to one year. It provides first-hand real-time continuous observation data to promote the research on the climate change and others in the deep ocean. The developed deep-sea buoy has reached the advanced level of similar products in the world (such as the Atlas buoy from the United States and the Triton buoy from Japan). What’s more, we have made the innovations in underwater inductive coupling data transmission.
Key words:  Deep-sea integrated observation  Buoy system  Profile temperature, Salt, depth and current  Mooring system  Underwater inductively coupled data transfer.
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