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黄河三角洲潮间带大型底栖无脊椎动物群落结构与分布特征
史会剑1, 李 玄1, 王海艳2, 马培振2, 张文文3, 雍 凡3, 崔 鹏3, 吴 翼3
1.山东省生态环境规划研究院;2.中国科学院海洋研究所;3.生态环境部南京环境科学研究所
摘要:
为了解黄河三角洲潮间带大型底栖无脊椎动物现状,于2019年5月分别对建国后黄河入海口4个流路区域20个潮间带站位进行了采样调查。调查共采集到大型底栖无脊椎动物5纲15目38科61种,主要优势种有托氏?螺(Umbonium costatum)、泥螺(Bullacta exarata)、光滑河蓝蛤(Potamocorbula laevis)、彩虹明樱蛤(Moerella iridescens)和四角蛤蜊(Mactra veneriformis)等;平均密度和平均生物量分别为158.34 ind./m2和398.3 g/m2;各流路区域的丰富度指数(d)变化范围为0.786–1.409,均匀度指数(J)的变化范围为0.332–0.462,多样性指数(H")的变化范围为1.216–1.692。平均密度在不同地点间存在显著差异(P<0.05),其余指数则差异不显著(P>0.05)。聚类分析结果说明各采样站位物种相似度较高。黄河入海改道、防潮坝建设工程以及黄河国家级自然保护区对黄河三角洲潮间带大型底栖无脊椎动物物种组成、分布及群落结构产生一定影响。本研究对黄河三角洲潮间带大型底栖无脊椎动物的分布特点进行了分析,并提出相关保护建议。
关键词:  底栖无脊椎动物  群落结构  空间分布  潮间带  黄河三角洲
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200419001
分类号:
基金项目:
Community characteristics and spatial distribution of macrobenthos in intertidal zone of YellowRiver Delta
SHI Hui-jian1, LI Xuan1, WANG Hai-yan2, MA Pei-zhen2, ZHANG Wen-wen3, YONG Fan3, CUI Peng3, WU Yi3
1.Shandong Academy for Environmental Planning;2.Institute of Oceanology,Chinese academy of sciences;3.Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences,Ministry of Ecology and Environment
Abstract:
In order to understand the community characteristics of invertebrate macrobenthos in intertidal zone of the Yellow River Delta, including the species composition, biomass, density and dominant species, an investigation was conducted at a total 20 sections of the four flow paths zone in May 2019. A total of 61 macrobenthos species belonging to 38 families and 15 orders in 5 classes were collected and identified. The dominant species were mollusks such as Umbonium costatum, Bullacta exarata, Potamocorbula laevis, Moerella iridescens, and Mactra veneriformis. The average density and average biomass were 158.34 ind./m2 and 398.3 g/m2, respectively. The Margalef richness index (d) value was from 0.786 to 1.409, with the Pielou index (J) value ranging from 0.332 to 0.462 and the Shannon-Wiener index (H") value from 1.216 to 1.692. The average density was significantly different among different locations, but no significant differences were found in other indexes. The results of cluster analysis indicated that there was high similarity of community characteristics of macrobenthos among flow path zones. The structural characteristics of macrobenthos community was affected by many factors, for instance, the change of flow paths to the sea, dam construction and Yellow River Delta nature reserves. Protection suggestion of invertebrate macrobenthos in intertidal zone of the Yellow River Delta was given in terms of the current characteristics of distribution.
Key words:  macrobenthos  community characteristics  spatial distribution  intertidal zone  Yellow River Delta
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