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南海北部陆架和陆坡区小型底栖动物群落的比较研究
周红
中国海洋大学海洋生命学院
摘要:
为了解南海北部陆架与陆坡区小型底栖动物的群落特征,以及影响群落特征的环境因素,2015年6月对南海北部海域 (19.3~21.4°N, 112.4~115.1°E) 7个站位的小型底栖动物及环境因子进行了采样,并对陆架和陆坡区小型底栖动物群落的丰度、生物量、类群组成和群落结构进行比较。结果表明,在陆架站位,小型底栖动物由13个类群组成,平均丰度为132±130 ind/10cm2,平均生物量为169±79 μg dwt/10cm2;在陆坡站位由8个类群组成,平均丰度为33±14 ind/10cm2,平均生物量为56±35 μg dwt/10cm2。单因素方差分析结果表明,陆坡区小型底栖动物的总丰度和总生物量以及线虫和多毛类的丰度均显著低于陆架区,但主要类群丰度组成的相对比例没有显著不同,海洋线虫占总丰度的83%,其次为多毛类和桡足类,分别占7%和3%。环境因子的主成分分析 (PCA) 将陆架和陆坡站位沿第一主分量轴分开,小型底栖生物丰度和生物量与沉积物叶绿素a和脱镁叶绿酸含量以及底温呈最大正相关,与水深呈负相关;聚类 (Cluster) 和排序 (MDS),以相似性系数65%可将7个站位划分为2组,与按照水深划分的陆架和陆坡组基本吻合;单因素相似性分析 (one-way ANOSIM) 显示陆架和陆坡区小型底栖动物群落结构差异显著;生物-环境分析 (BIOENV) 表明影响群落结构的最佳环境因子组合为叶绿素a和底温。综上可得,随水深增加食物的减少和底温的下降是限制南海北部研究海域小型底栖动物丰度和生物量及影响群落组成和结构的主要因素。但是,相对于水深而言,研究海域的沉积物类型对小型底栖动物现存量的影响可能更为直接,能够作为解释本研究相比南海北部其他研究小型底栖动物丰度偏低的原因之一。
关键词:  小型底栖动物群落  丰度和生物量  组成和结构  陆架和陆坡  南海北部
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20191100228
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目, 41376146号; 国家海洋公益性行业专项, 201505004号; 中国海洋大学基本科研业务费,201262010号; 2015年基金委南海北部共享航次
Comparison between meiofaunal communities from the shelf and slope in the northern South China Sea
ZHOU Hong
College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China
Abstract:
To understand the characteristics of meiofaunal communities from the shelf and slope depths, and the most relevant environmental factors, meiofaunal and environmental samples were collected at seven stations in the northern South China Sea (19.3-21.4°N, 112.4-115.1°E) in June 2015, and comparisons were made for meiofaunal abundance, biomass, taxon composition and community structure between the shelf and slope stations. The results showed that, at the shelf, meiofauna consists of 13 major groups with average abundance of 132±130 ind/10cm2, and biomass 169±79 μg dwt/10cm2; at the slope, meiofauna consists of 8 major groups with significantly lower abundance of 33±14 ind/10cm2 and biomass of 56±35 μg dwt/10cm2 than the shelf, but no significant difference in terms of major taxon composition (Mann-Whitney U test), i.e., at both depths, nematode was the most dominant taxon (83% of the total abundance), followed by polychaete (7%) and copepod (3%). PCA indicated the separation of shelf and slope stations along PC1 and meiofaunal abundance and biomass were positively related with sedimentary chlorophyll a, phaeopigment, and bottom water temperature, while negatively related with water depth. At 65% similarity, Cluster and MDS classified the seven stations into two groups which were basically consistent with the shelf and slope grouping. One-way ANOSIM based on abundance matrix of major taxa showed significantly different community structure between the shelf and slope meiofauna. BIOENV suggested that the best combination of environmental factors affecting meiofaunal community structure were chlorophyll a and bottom water temperature. In summary, with the water depth increased, change in food source and decreased food availability as well as lower bottom water temperature, were possible reasons explaining the different characteristics of meiofaunal communities between shelf and slope depths in the northern South China Sea. However, dominant sediment type of the study waters (silty-sand), as compared to water depth, may directly affect the meiofaunal living environment and thus may be considered as one of the more important factors explaining the lower meiofaunal abundance than the previous studies in the northern South China Sea.
Key words:  Meiofauna  abundance and biomass  community composition and structure  shelf and slope  northern South China Sea
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