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印太交汇区海洋软体动物生物多样性研究进展*
张均龙, 张树乾
中国科学院海洋研究所 青岛
摘要:
印太交汇区珊瑚礁大三角是全球海洋生物多样性最高的区域,孕育了印度-西太平洋海域接近60%的软体动物种类,同时也有很高比例的特有物种。该海域是全球软体动物生物多样性研究的热点区域。已有不同国家的学者相继对印太交汇区软体动物的多样性、分类与系统演化等方面开展了研究,并取得了一系列重要的成果。基于此,本文从软体动物的生物多样性格局、成因、以及其影响因素等角度出发,对印太交汇区软体动物研究的主要方面进展进行了综述。先后有物种起源中心、积累中心、重叠中心、幸存中心等多种假说被提出以解释其多样性的成因。印太交汇区软体动物生物多样性分布格局与板块构造作用、海平面的变化、海洋环流以及暖池等密切相关。本文也指出了目前研究中存在的主要问题,分析了未来的发展趋势及面临的挑战,以期为今后的相关研究提供参考和思路。
关键词:  印度-西太平洋,珊瑚大三角,软体动物,多样性热点,特有种  物种形成
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200700212
分类号:
基金项目:
PROGRESS ON MARINE MOLLUSCAN BIODIVERSITY IN THE INDO-PACIFIC CONVERGENT AREA
ZHANG Jun-Long, ZHANG Shu-Qian
Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao
Abstract:
The Indo-Pacific Convergent Area (IPCA) is recognized as the highest marine biodiversity region in the world, with the “Coral Triangle” in IPCA breeding numerous marine species and harbouring nearly 60% molluscan species of the Indo-West Pacific. IPCA is an area of outstanding biological interest as a marine molluscan biodiversity hotspot, with exceptional high species richness and striking high endemism. Researches on biodiversity, classification, systematics, and evolution of molluscs in IPCA have been carried out and achieved a series of important results. We summarized the main progress herein. Hypotheses, such as the centre of origin, the centre of accumulation, the centre of overlap, the centre of survival were proposed to explain the formation and evolution of the marine biodiversity. IPCA marine hotspot and endemism are strongly associated with tectonic activity, eustatic sea-level fluctuation, oceanic circulation, and high sea surface temperature caused by the warm pool, that continually modify habitat availability and increase the heterogeneity. These abiotic changes over geologic time alter gene flow and species distribution, and lead to the speciation due to isolation, eventually may shape the molluscan biodiversity in IPCA. We also pointed out many scientific issues associated with the biodiversity centre have yet to be explored and put forward proposals for future study.
Key words:  Indo-West Pacific  Coral Triangle  molluscs  biodiversity hotspot  endemism  speciation
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