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西太平洋深海科学观测网的建设和运行
汪嘉宁1,2, 王凡1,2, 张林林1,2
1.中国科学院海洋研究所海洋环流与波动重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋动力过程与气候变化实验室 青岛 266235
摘要:
西太平洋科学观测网是由中国科学院海洋研究所自主建成的大洋观测网络。深海数据的连续获取和实时传输对海洋与气候预报和海洋环境安全保障意义重大,世界海洋大国纷纷致力于其关键技术和系统集成的攻关。在中科院战略性先导科技专项的资助下,中科院海洋所经过统筹安排和周密部署,3年多来先后组织西太平洋综合考察航次3次,成功布放和回收深海潜标73套次,建成了由16套深海潜标组成的我国西太平洋科学观测网并实现稳定运行,获取西太平洋代表性海域连续3年的温度、盐度和洋流等数据。在2016年航次中,中国科学院又攻克了潜标数据长周期稳定实时传输的海洋观测难题,实现了深海数据的“现场直播”,截至2017年9月,深海数据已成功连续实时回传260余天。以此为标志,我国的大洋科学观测网建设实现了批量化、标准化和常态化。深海观测数据的长时间连续积累和实时化传输,将提升我国深海科学研究能力,加速我国海洋与气候预报业务系统建设步伐,满足海洋强国建设、“一带一路”倡议对海洋环境安全保障的重大需求。“十三五”时期,我国正全面推进深海进入、深海探测和深海开发的深海战略,深海科学观测网建设技术和潜标数据实时传输技术对我国深海探测能力的提升意义重大。
关键词:  西太平洋  科学观测网  潜标  实时化  深海探测  建设运行
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20170900228
分类号:P731
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)项目,XDA11010201号,XDA11010204号;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ12号。
CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A DEEP-SEA SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION NETWORK IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC
WANG Jia-Ning1,2, WANG Fan1,2, ZHANG Lin-Lin1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Ocean and Climate Dynamics, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China
Abstract:
The Scientific Observation Network in the Western Pacific Ocean is constructed by the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). Many of the world's major maritime powers have committed to the research on key technologies and system integration related to the continuous acquisition and real-time transmission of deep-sea data, because these are of significant importance for marine weather and climate forecasts, and for ensuring the safety of marine environments. With the support of the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the IOCAS has performed three comprehensive research expeditions, succeeded in deploying and retrieving 73 sets of subsurface moorings, and established China's Western Pacific Scientific Observation Network using 16 sets of deep-sea subsurface mooring. This network is now capable of stable operation, and temperature, salinity, and ocean current data from representative marine regions of the Western Pacific have been acquired using this network for three years in succession. During the expedition in 2016, the IOCAS set out to overcome well-known difficulties in the long-term transmission of real-time data from subsurface moorings, and succeeded in achieving “live transmission” of deep sea data. By September 2017, the real-time transmission of deep-sea data had successfully been conducted for more than 260 days in a row. With this milestone, the construction of China's marine science observation network has achieved batch operation, standardization, and normalization. Real-time transmission and long-term accumulation of deep-sea observation data will enhance capacity for marine science research, and also accelerate the establishment of marine weather and climate forecast systems for China, thus meeting the immense requirements of national marine strategies such as Marine Potestatem and Belt and Road Initiative. Over the 13th Five-Year Plan, China will fully commit to a strategy involving the establishment of access, exploration, and development of deep-sea regions. Hence, the establishment of deep-sea scientific observation networks and technologies for real-time data transmission from subsurface moorings are vital for enhancing China's capacity for deep-sea exploration.
Key words:  Western Pacific Ocean  scientific observation network  subsurface mooring  real-time  deep-sea exploration  construction and operation
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