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基于地学信息图谱的河道、海岸线演变对黄河三角洲景观格局影响研究
李丹, 王庆, 徐洋, 战超, 刘现彬, 王龙升, 崔步礼, 于祥, 孙晓, 王秋贤
鲁东大学海岸研究所 烟台 264025
摘要:
本文利用1988、1998、2009和2016年四期遥感影像,运用GIS技术,将地学信息图谱的图形思维与景观生态学的定量思维相结合,以距今不同时期的亚三角洲和滨海湿地为研究区,从景观结构和景观演替两个方面探究黄河三角洲河道、海岸线演变对景观格局的影响。结果表明:(1)距今不同时间的河道对黄河三角洲景观结构的影响程度不同,距今时间越长的亚三角洲研究区内耕地占总面积的比例越大且耕地是亚三角洲研究区中的第一优势景观类型。在1855—1889亚三角洲研究区内,除耕地和建筑用地外,其他各类景观占总面积的比例都较小且随时间变化不明显;在1929—1934亚三角洲研究区内,盐田、养殖池占总面积的比例从2009年到2016年增加了近40%,涨幅明显;在1964—1976亚三角洲研究区内,各类景观占总面积的比例趋于平均;在2017至今的亚三角洲研究区内,耕地和光滩占总面积的比例较高,达到24%左右。(2)距今不同时间的海岸线对黄河三角洲景观结构的影响程度也不同,在1855滨海湿地研究区内,耕地占总面积比例为60%左右,而海域占总面积比例接近于0,极差较大;在1934和1974滨海湿地研究区内,光滩、柽柳、碱蓬群落、芦苇、白茅群落占总面积比例随时间变化几乎呈逐渐下降趋势,而建筑用地和盐田、养殖池则呈逐渐上升趋势;2009滨海湿地研究区,河流、人工水域占总面积比例在2009年和2016年均达到32%以上。(3)根据景观类型重心变化特征,分析河道、海岸线演变对景观演替的影响程度,将不同时期亚三角洲和滨海湿地研究区景观演替分为如下几类:亚三角洲人类活动主导型、废弃河道主导型、行水河道主导型、滨海湿地人类活动主导型、废弃海岸主导型、新海岸主导型。
关键词:  黄河三角洲  景观信息图谱  景观格局  河道  海岸线
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180200033
分类号:P901
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目,U1706220号,41471005号,41271016号;山东省科技厅面上项目,ZR2017MD015号;山东省教育厅项目,J16LH02号。
INFLUENCE OF RIVER AND COASTLINE EVOLUTION ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN IN THE YELLOW RIVER DELTA BASED ON GEOSCIENCE-INFORMATION ATLAS
LI Dan, WANG Qing, XU Yang, ZHAN Chao, LIU Xian-Bin, WANG Long-Sheng, CUI Bu-Li, YU Xiang, SUN Xiao, WANG Qiu-Xian
Coast Institute, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China
Abstract:
The 1988, 1998, 2009 and 2016 four period remote sensing image and GIS technology were used, it integrated quantitative thinking of landscape ecological and graphic thinking of geoscience-information atlas. The influence of the evolution of channel and coastline on the landscape pattern in the Yellow River delta from two aspects of landscape structure and landscape succession was explored in different periods of the sub-delta and coastal wetland research area. The results show that:(1) The impacts of channel at different times have different impacts on the landscape structure of the Yellow River Delta. Not only the arable land is the first dominant landscape type in the sub-delta research area, but also it occupies a larger proportion in earlier formed areas. In the study area of the sub-delta in 1855-1889, except for arable land and construction land, other types of landscapes accounted for a smaller proportion of the total area and changing with time is not obvious. In the study area of the sub-delta in 1929-1934, the proportion of the total area of the salt field and the aquaculture pool increased by nearly 40% from 2009 to 2016. In the study area of the sub-delta in 1964-1976, various types of landscape tended to average the proportion of the total area; In the sub-delta study area from 2017 to the present, arable land and light beach accounted for a high proportion of the total area, reaching about 24%. (2) The impacts of coastlines at different times have different impacts on the landscape structure of the Yellow River Delta, too. In the study area of the coastal wetlands in 1855, the proportion of the total area of arable land is about 60%, while the proportion of the sea area is close to 0; In the 1934 and 1974 coastal wetlands research area, with the passage of time, the proportions of the total area of construction land, salt fields and aquaculture ponds are gradually increasing, while the light beach, Tamarisk+Suaeda Community and Reed+Imperata Community underwent a gradual downward trend. In 2009 Coastal wetland research area, rivers and artificial waters accounted for the largest proportion of the total area, reaching over 32%. (3) Characteristics of landscape type gravity, the sub-delta different periods and coastal wetland of landscape succession into the following categories:Sub-Delta Human Activities-led, Abandoned Channel-led, Row Water Channel-led, Coastal Wetland Human Activity-led, Abandoned Coast-led, New Coast-led.
Key words:  Yellow River Delta  landscape information map  landscape pattern  channel  coastline
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