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引用本文:王梓瞳,宋秀贤,张悦,俞志明,唐学玺.改性粘土对硬壳蛤(Mercenaria mercenaria)生长的影响.海洋与湖沼,2019,50(3):692-699.
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改性粘土对硬壳蛤(Mercenaria mercenaria)生长的影响
王梓瞳1,2, 宋秀贤2,3,4,5, 张悦2,3,5, 俞志明2,3,4,5, 唐学玺1
1.中国海洋大学海洋生命学院 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室(中国科学院海洋研究所) 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266071;4.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;5.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
本文以硬壳蛤(Mercenaria mercenaria)为研究对象,开展了两种类型改性粘土(聚合氯化铝改性粘土MCⅠ,硫酸铝改性粘土MCⅡ)对其急性、亚急性毒性实验。96h急性毒性实验结果显示,MCⅠ和MCⅡ对小规格硬壳蛤[壳长(1.98±0.05)mm,壳高(1.75±0.04)mm]的半致死浓度(LC50)分别为4.91和1.85g/L,对大规格硬壳蛤[壳长(5.70±0.15)mm,壳高(5.09±0.13)mm]的LC50分别为5.77和3.40g/L。亚急性毒性实验结果表明:浓度低于1.0g/L的MCⅠ和MCⅡ未对两种规格硬壳蛤的存活产生影响;硬壳蛤滤水率随改性粘土用量增加而降低,其中0.1g/L的MCⅠ和MCⅡ对两种规格硬壳蛤滤水率无影响,0.5g/L的MCⅡ对两种规格硬壳蛤滤水率均有显著影响(P<0.05),而MCⅠ仅对小规格硬壳蛤滤水率有影响;当改性粘土浓度升高至1.0g/L,两种规格硬壳蛤的滤水率均显著低于对照(P<0.05)。生长率的结果显示,仅1.0g/L的MCⅠ和MCⅡ显著影响小规格硬壳蛤生长。多年的应用结果表明,现场能有效消除有害赤潮藻华的改性粘土用量为4-10t/km2,低于本实验中对硬壳蛤产生影响的改性粘土浓度。另外,我国近海实际养殖过程中投放的硬壳蛤通常为1cm左右,大于本研究中的硬壳蛤规格。据此可以推断,改性粘土在现场治理藻华的同时不会对其存活和生长产生不良影响。本研究结果将为改性粘土在近海养殖水域的应用提供科学依据。
关键词:  改性粘土  硬壳蛤(Mercenaria mercenaria)  急性毒性  亚急性毒性
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20190200039
分类号:X55
基金项目:国家重点研发计划,2017YFC1404300号;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划,2016ASKJ02-3号;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山人才计划资助,2017ASTCP-OS16号;泰山学者工程专项经费资助
EFFECTS OF MODIFIED CLAY ON MERCENARIA MERCENARIA
WANG Zi-Tong1,2, SONG Xiu-Xian2,3,4,5, ZHANG Yue2,3,5, YU Zhi-Ming2,3,4,5, TANG Xue-Xi1
1.College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, China;2.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266071, China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;5.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
The poly aluminum chloride and aluminium sulfate modified clays (termed MCⅠand MCⅡ, respectively) were used to estimate the acute and subacute toxicity on two-sized Mercenaria mercenaria. The results of 96 h acute toxicity show that the half lethal concentration (LC50) of MCⅠand MCⅡfor the small-sized hard clam[shell length (1.98±0.05)mm, shell height (1.75±0.04)mm] were 4.91 and 1.85g/L, respectively. And for the large-sized hard clam[shell length (5.70±0.15)mm, shell height (5.09±0.13)mm], the LC50 of MCⅠand MCⅡ were 5.77 and 3.40g/L, respectively. The results of subacute toxicity test show that MCⅠand MCⅡhad no effects on the survival of hard clams at concentrations below 1.0g/L. The clearance rates of the hard clams decreased with the increasing of the modified clay. Both MCⅠand MCⅡcaused negligible effects on the clearance rates at 0.1g/L. However, the clearance rates of small-and large-sized hard clams decreased significantly under MCⅡconcentration of 0.5g/L, whereas MCⅠonly affected the clearance rates of small-sized hard clams at 0.5g/L (P<0.05). When the MC concentration increased to 1.0g/L, the clearance rates of both small-and large-sized hard clams decreased significantly (P<0.05). The results of growth rates show that 0.1 and 0.5g/L of MCⅠand MCⅡhad no effects on hard clams, only 1.0g/L of MCⅠand MCⅡaffected small-sized hard clams. In fact, the amount of modified clay that is effective to mitigate the harmful algal blooms in fields is usually 4-10t/km2, which is much lower than the safety concentrations in this study. Furthermore, the sizes of hard clams in coastal farming of China is about 1cm, which is much larger than the sizes of hard clams used in this study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the modified clay used in field will not cause adverse effects on the survival or growth of M. mercenaria. This study may provide a scientific basis for the application of modified clay.
Key words:  modified clay  Mercenaria mercenaria  acute toxicity  subacute toxicity
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