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引用本文:张俊,陈作志,董俊德,张魁,林昭进,孙典荣.近20年南海四带笛鲷(Lutjanus kasmira)种群特征变化.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(1):114-124.
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近20年南海四带笛鲷(Lutjanus kasmira)种群特征变化
张俊1,2,3, 陈作志2,4, 董俊德1, 张魁2, 林昭进2, 孙典荣2
1.中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室 广东省应用海洋生物学重点实验室 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 广州 510301;2.中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 农业农村部外海渔业开发重点实验室 广州 510301;3.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;4.南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室 广州 510301
摘要:
根据1998-2018年于我国南海珊瑚礁海域以手钓及流刺网采集的四带笛鲷(Lutjanus kasmira)的生物学数据,对其群体结构、初次性成熟体长、摄食强度及肥满度等种群特征的年际变化进行了研究。结果表明:(1)四带笛鲷的体长范围逐渐缩小,平均体长及最大体长均呈减小趋势;2013-2018年四带笛鲷体长结构与1998-1999年差异极显著;1998-1999年全部群体的优势体长组为165-180mm,2013-2017年各年份优势体长组趋向分散,2017年5月优势体长组包括105-115mm和125-150mm,2018年5月优势体长组为140-165mm,优势体长组呈缩小趋势;(2)异速生长因子b存在年际变化和季节波动,但基本在2.5-3.5范围内;体长范围及其集中程度的差异是导致b波动的主要因素;(3)1998年4月、1999年5月、2016年4月、2017年5月和2018年9月雌雄比分别为0.62、0.77、1.69、1.08和2.65,雌鱼所占比例逐渐升高,1998-1999年雄鱼多于雌鱼,2016-2018年雌鱼多于雄鱼,性成熟比例和初次性成熟体长总体呈降低趋势;(4)低摄食等级个体占比不断升高,而高摄食等级个体占比则明显下降,平均摄食等级逐渐降低,如雌性及全部群体的平均摄食等级1999年5月分别为2.40和2.47,2018年5月分别下降至1.45和1.50;胃含物含有未消化的鸡骨和鸡肉残余,这表明礁区人类活动已经直接影响到其物质流通环节;(5)肥满度持续减小,雌性、雄性和全部群体2016-2018年的肥满度极显著低于1998-1999年,如1998年的4月和1999年的5月全部群体的肥满度分别是110%和105%,而2017年和2018年的5月只有97%;肥满度雌雄及季节间的差异不显著,但与平均摄食等级呈显著正相关关系。四带笛鲷种群特征演变表明,其生境恶化,种群健康和食物供给受到威胁。为促进珊瑚礁鱼类种群恢复,笔者建议及时采取措施保护其资源,改善栖息地质量。
关键词:  四带笛鲷  珊瑚礁鱼类  生物学特征  肥满度  南海
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20190500081
分类号:S931.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助,2018YFC1406502号;国家自然科学基金项目资助,31902374号;南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项资助,GML2019ZD0605号;农业农村部财政专项项目资助,NFZX2018号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项A资助,XDA13020300号。
VARIATION IN THE POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BLUE-STRIPED SNAPPER LUTJANUS KASMIRA IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA IN RECENT 20 YEARS
ZHANG Jun1,2,3, CHEN Zuo-Zhi2,4, DONG Jun-De1, ZHANG Kui2, LIN Zhao-Jin2, SUN Dian-Rong2
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology(LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology(LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China;2.South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory of Open-Sea Fishery Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Guangzhou 510301, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510301, China
Abstract:
Based on the biological data of Lutjanus kasmira collected by hand fishing and gill nets in the coral reefs of the South China Sea from 1998 to 2018, the inter-annual variation in population characteristics including population structure, first maturity lengths, feeding intensity, and fitness were studied. The results show that the following. (1) The body length ranges, average body, and maximum body length of L. kasmira reduced gradually. The difference of body length between 2013-2018 and 1998-1999 was extremely significant. During 1998-1999, the dominant body length groups of the unsex population were 165-180mm. However, during 2013-2017 the corresponding dominant body length groups tended to disperse. In May 2017 and May 2018, the dominant body length groups included 105-115mm and 125-150mm, and 140-165mm. Consequently, the dominant body length groups were smaller. (2) The allometric growth factor b was generally in the range of 2.5-3.5, but it has inter-annual and seasonal fluctuations. The differences in the range and concentration of body length were the main factors affecting b. (3) In April 1998, May 1999, April 2016, May 2017, and September 2018, the ratios of female to male were 0.62, 0.77, 1.69, 1.08 and 2.65, respectively. From 1998 to 2018, the proportion of females increased gradually. During 1998 to 1999, the males were more than females, but females began to have more males than males from 2016. The proportion of sexual maturity and first maturity lengths reduced generally. (4) The proportion of individuals in low feeding intensity increased continuously, the proportion of individuals in high feeding intensity decreased significantly, and the average feeding intensity gradually decreased. For example, in May 1999, the average feeding intensities of female and unsex populations were respectively 2.40 and 2.47; however in May 2018, the corresponding intensities were only 1.45 and 1.50. In the stomach, some undigested chicken bone and chicken residue were found, indicating that the human activities in the reef area have directly affected the material circulation of the population. (5) The fitness continued to decrease from 1998 to 2018, and the fitness of the female, male, and unsex populations during 2016 to 2018 was significantly lower than that during 1998 to 1999. For example, in April 1998 and May 1999, the relative fitnesses of unsex populations were 110% and 105% respectively, while in May 2017 and May 2018, the corresponding relative fitnesses were only 97% for both. The fitness was not significantly different between male and female and seasons, but it significantly and positively correlated with the average feeding intensity. The long-term changes of the population characteristics of L. kasmira indicated that the population may be in poor health, and its habitats and supply of prey have been deteriorated. To promote the recovery of reef fish stocks, it is recommended to take timely measures to protect the resources and improve habitat quality.
Key words:  blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira  coral reef fish  biological characteristics  relative fitness  South China Sea
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