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引用本文:王公嗣,符翔超,黄勃,罗安.南海岛礁羊鲍(Haliotis ovina)资源及其栖息地环境研究.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(3):536-540.
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南海岛礁羊鲍(Haliotis ovina)资源及其栖息地环境研究
王公嗣1,2,3,4, 符翔超1,2,3,4, 黄勃1,2,3,4, 罗安3,4
1.海南大学海洋学院 海口 570228;2.海南省热带水生生物技术重点实验室 海口 570228;3.海南大学热带生物资源教育部重点实验室 海口 570228;4.海南大学南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室 海口 570228
摘要:
鲍是重要的海珍品,羊鲍(Haliotis ovina)是主要生活在热带岩岸潮间带大型经济鲍类底栖动物。为了研究南海岛礁羊鲍资源及其栖息环境,我们在宣德群岛的永兴岛和七连屿,永乐群岛的羚羊礁、甘泉岛和晋卿岛进行了羊鲍资源分布及其栖息水环境研究。按照《海岛调查技术规程》中潮间带岩岸大型底栖生物调查方法,对羊鲍进行取样调查。按照《海洋调查规范第4部分:海水化学要素调查》(GB T 12763.4-2007),对羊鲍栖息地水环境的总无机氮、活性磷酸盐、悬浮物和叶绿素a等海水化学要素进行分析。结果表明,羊鲍在永乐群岛和宣德群岛都有分布,这些岛礁按永兴岛、七连屿、羚羊礁、甘泉岛和晋卿岛的顺序,分布密度依次增加,个头大小依次增大,总体来说羊鲍资源量小,有的岛礁海区几乎绝迹,亟需开展生态增殖和资源养护研究工作。水质调查表明,除永兴岛站位的悬浮物指标因填海作业未达标外,各站位的水质指标均达一类水标准且具有一定稳定性。因此,尽管南海岛礁受人类活动的影响,但该海域仍适合羊鲍栖息,是羊鲍资源养护、底播生态增殖和生态养护的适宜场所,符合建立海洋保护区的国家水质标准和环境条件。
关键词:  羊鲍(Haliotis ovina)  宣德群岛  永乐群岛  海水环境
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200100014
分类号:S968.3
基金项目:海南省重点计划项目,ZDYF2016089号;国家海洋公益项目,201105008-7号;国家高技术研究发展计划(863)项目,2012AA10A412-8号,2004AA603130号;中医药行业科研专项(海洋药),201207002-03号。
STUDIES ON THE RESOURCES AND HABITAT SEAWATER ENVIRONMENT OF HALIOTIS OVINA IN ISLANDS AND REEFS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA
WANG Gong-Si1,2,3,4, FU Xiang-Chao1,2,3,4, HUANG Bo1,2,3,4, LUO An3,4
1.College of Marine Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China;2.Key Laboratory of Tropical Hydrobiology and Biotechnology of Hainan Province, Haikou 570228, China;3.Key Laboratory of Tropical Biological Resources of Ministry of Education in Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China;4.State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
Abstract:
Haliotis ovina is a tropical large-scale economic abalone in China. The abalone resources and its habitat in the South Island may have been affected by human activities. To study the current situation of H. ovina habitat environment of the South Island Reef, the abalone resource distribution and its habitat water environment in Yongxing Island and Qilian Islet of Xuande Islands, Antelope Reef, Ganquan Island, and Jinqing Island of Yongle Islands, were investigated. Regarding national codes of China, the abalones were sampled and seawater chemical elements such as (total inorganic nitrogen, active phosphate, suspend solid, and chlorophyll-a) in the water environment of H. ovina were analyzed. The results show that H. ovina is distributed in the Yongle Islands and the Xuande Islands. The abalone resources were so poor that almost no abalone was found are in some islands and reefs. There is urgent to research on ecological proliferation and resource conservation. On the other hand, the water quality survey showed that water quality index of each station reached the first-class (the best) water standard, except for the suspend solid content of Yongxing Island station due to reclamation operations. In overall, this sea area is suitable for H. ovina and the restocking for enhancement of its resources. It also meets the national water quality standards and environmental conditions for the establishment of marine conservation zones.
Key words:  Haliotis ovina  Xuande Islands  Yongle Islands  seawater environment
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