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引用本文:于仁成,吕颂辉,齐雨藻,周名江.中国近海有害藻华研究现状与展望.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(4):768-788.
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中国近海有害藻华研究现状与展望
于仁成1,2,3,4, 吕颂辉5, 齐雨藻5, 周名江1
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;4.中国科学院海洋大科学中心 青岛 266071;5.暨南大学 广州 510632
摘要:
海洋或淡水环境中的一些藻类生物量暴发性增长会形成有害藻华(harmful algal blooms,HAB),对人类健康、生态安全和社会经济发展构成威胁。近50年来,近海有害藻华问题不断加剧,已经成为一类全球性的海洋生态环境问题。在“全球有害藻华生态学与海洋学研究计划(GEOHAB)”和“全球变化下有害藻华研究计划(GlobalHAB)”支持下,有害藻华研究不断深入,在“有害藻华原因种多样性、生物地理分布特征与适应策略”、“典型有害藻华的生态学与海洋学研究”、“富营养化和气候变化对有害藻华的影响”、“藻毒素与人类健康”、“有害藻华的监测、预警和防控”等方面取得了重要进展。有害藻华是我国近海最突出的生态灾害之一,自2000年以来,我国近海大规模有害藻华不断出现,藻华原因种表现出多样化、小型化和有害化的演变趋势,对沿海地区社会经济发展和生态系统健康构成严重威胁。针对我国近海的有害藻华,本文从有害藻华原因种基础生物学研究、有害藻华生态学与海洋学研究、近海有毒藻和藻毒素研究、有害藻华监测与治理研究等四个方面对主要研究进展进行了总结和分析。综合国内外有害藻华现状和相关研究进展,建议进一步深化对我国近海有害藻华形成及演变机理的研究,高度关注全球变化和人类活动对我国近海有害藻华的影响,推动有害藻华监测预警体系建设,持续提高对藻华灾害的防控能力,积极参与有害藻华领域国际合作,更好地应对有害藻华问题。
关键词:  有害藻华  富营养化  气候变化  藻毒素
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200400127
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项子课题,XDA19060203号;国家重点研发计划,2017YFC1404300号。
PROGRESS AND PERSPECTIVES OF HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM STUDIES IN CHINA
YU Ren-Cheng1,2,3,4, Lü Song-Hui5, QI Yu-Zao5, ZHOU Ming-Jiang1
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266071, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;5.Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
Abstract:
Proliferation of certain algae in the sea or freshwater environment will lead to the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs), which pose potent threats to the health of human-beings, ecological security, and social and economic development. HAB has become an international ecological issue of marine environment, and the number of HAB events increased rapidly in the last 5 decades. Under the supervision of international programs "GEOHAB" and "GlobalHAB", great progresses have been made on many subjects, including the diversity, biogeography, and adaptive strategies of HAB causative species; the ecology and oceanography of HABs; the impacts of eutrophication and global change on HABs; the phycotoxins and human-health; and the monitoring, early-warning, and prevention of HABs, etc. In China, the first case of large-scale HAB event appeared in 2000 in maritime region, since then the HAB causative species tended to be more diversified, localized, and harmful. Recent progresses in HAB study in China were reviewed under the topics of biology of HAB causative species, ecology, oceanography of HABs, toxic algae and phycotoxins, and HAB monitoring and mitigation. It was suggested that Chinese scientists shall cooperate closely with international colleagues to study the formation and succession mechanisms of HABs, with special attention on the impacts of climate change, to push forward the construction of HAB monitoring and early-warning system, and to improve the capabilities on HAB prevention and control.
Key words:  harmful algal blooms  eutrophication  climate change  phycotoxins
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