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引用本文:张武昌,赵苑,董逸,李海波,赵丽,肖天.上层海洋浮游生物地理分布.海洋与湖沼,2021,52(2):332-345.
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上层海洋浮游生物地理分布
张武昌1,2,3, 赵苑1,2,3, 董逸1,2,3, 李海波1,2,3, 赵丽1,2,3, 肖天1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
确定海洋浮游生物的分布区域是海洋浮游生态学研究的首要任务之一,本文总结了上层海洋(0—200 m)浮游生物地理分布的研究历史、已有的认知及全球变化的影响。对浮游生物地理分布的研究可以分为19世纪末期至20世纪70年代、20世纪80年代至2000年,以及2000年以后三个时期。根据分布区资料的时间长短,浮游生物分布区分为瞬时分布区和时段分布区。大洋浮游生物地理分布呈按纬度平行分布的九带式格局:赤道条带、2个中心区条带、2个亚极区条带、位于中心区和亚极区之间的2个过渡区条带及位于南北极海区的2个极区条带。洋流和水团是除过渡区条带之外的生物分布格局决定因素,而过渡区条带的可能调控机制为中尺度涡。在核心区内生物的构成相对稳定,但在不同位置生物的丰度比例可能不同,在环流中心可能有演替顶极。在分布区的外围,洋流和中尺度涡使得生物远离核心区,繁殖能力下降不足以维持种群,从而处于流放状态。相同分布格局的生物扩散能力不同,扩散能力最差的生物是核心种,最强的为先锋种。相邻水团中核心种和先锋种的交汇可以有不同的情形,交汇的位置也会经常发生周期性的变化。由于纬度的不同和陆地的阻隔,南北半球和不同大洋的相同条带之间有不同的种类。人类活动使得有些近岸种类发生了生物入侵,而全球变暖使得大洋浮游生物分布区向极区移动。随着分子生物学技术的普及发展,微食物网生物的生物地理分布研究也逐渐开展。我国的海洋生态学研究正在走向大洋深海,对全球尺度的海洋浮游生物地理分布的关注逐渐增加,也必将有所贡献。
关键词:  浮游生物  生物地理分布  流放  过渡带  水团  中尺度涡
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200100211
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项,XDB42030402号,XDA19060201号;国家自然科学基金,42076139号。
附件
BIOGEOGRAPHY OF EPIPELAGIC MARINE PLANKTON
ZHANG Wu-Chang1,2,3, ZHAO Yuan1,2,3, DONG Yi1,2,3, LI Hai-Bo1,2,3, ZHAO Li1,2,3, XIAO Tian1,2,3
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
To determine the distribution area of marine plankton is one of the primary tasks of marine planktonic ecology research. The research history of the biogeography studies of marine plankton in the epipelagic layer (0-200 m), the existing cognition and the influence of global changes were reviewed. The study of the biogeographic distribution of plankton can be divided into three episodes:the late 19th century to the 1970s, the 1980s to the year 2000, and the year 2000 onwards. According to the length of time of distribution data, the distribution area of plankton could be divided into instantaneous distribution area and period distribution area. The plankton distribution pattern in the ocean is parallel to nine belts in latitude:an equatorial belt, two central belts, two sub-polar belts, two transition zone belts located between central and sub-polar belts, and two polar belts in the Arctic and Antarctic seas. Ocean currents and water masses are the determinants of biological distribution except in the transition zone belts. The possible regulation mechanism of the transition zone belts is mesoscale eddies. The composition of plankton species in the core area is relatively stable, but the abundance ratio in different locations may be different. A succession climax may occur in the circulation center. In the periphery of the distribution area, ocean currents and mesoscale eddies carry organisms away from the core area. Their reproductive capacity declines and cannot maintain the population, so they are in a state of expatriate. The biological diffusion ability of plankton with same distribution pattern is different. The core species have the worst diffusion ability, and the pioneer species have the strongest. The intersection of the core and pioneer species in adjacent water masses may vary, and the location of the intersection may change periodically. Due to different latitudes and land barriers, there are different species between the northern and southern hemispheres, as well as between the same bands of different oceans. Human activities have caused some nearshore species to invade into other sea areas, while global warming makes the distribution area of ocean plankton to shift pole-ward. With the popularization and development of molecular biology technology, studies of biogeographic distribution of microbial food web organisms has been gradually advanced. As the study of marine ecology in China has expanded to open ocean and deep sea, more and more attention has been paid to the global biogeographic distribution pattern of marine plankton.
Key words:  plankton  biogeographic distribution  expatriate  transition zone  water mass  mesoscale eddy
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