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黑潮对东海网采浮游植物群落组成与分布的影响
孙振皓, 江志兵, 詹琳, 朱元励, 曾江宁, 陈全震, 陈建芳
自然资源部第二海洋研究所
摘要:
黑潮入侵深刻影响东海生态环境,但对其如何影响浮游植物群落组成与分布仍知之甚少。为此,我们于2011年四季对东海(26°~33°N, 121°~128°E)共164个站位进行浮游植物拖网采集和环境因子测定,分析了浮游植物丰度和优势种组成及其对黑潮入侵的响应。调查共检出浮游植物9门509种(含变种、变型和未定种),其中硅藻305种、甲藻154种,蓝藻、定鞭藻、金藻、裸藻、绿藻、隐藻和黄藻种类数较少。秋季浮游植物细胞丰度最高(30496.91个/L),高值区位于黑潮与长江冲淡水交汇形成的锋面处;夏季次之(28911.28个/L),高值区分布与秋季相似;春季较少(19180.76个/L),高值区位于舟山群岛东南部;冬季最低(472.36个/L),高值区位于东海南部。冬季受黑潮表层水入侵影响,主要优势种为高温高盐种铁氏束毛藻(Trichodesmium thiebautii);春、夏季主要优势种为骨条藻(Skeletonema spp.),由于黑潮次表层水势力增强,入侵东海并携带丰富的磷酸盐,加之长江冲淡水输入大量无机氮,夏季浮游植物总丰度高于春季;秋季主要优势种为柔弱伪菱形藻(Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima),受黑潮表层水势力增强和次表层水影响,磷酸盐浓度最高,浮游植物总丰度在四季中最高。种类数表现为秋季>冬季>夏季>春季,水平分布为由近岸向外海递增,种类数高值位于黑潮影响区域。相似性分析和多维尺度分析显示,浮游植物群落组成时空差异明显。由此可见,黑潮携带的磷酸盐和暖水种,促进了浮游植物的生长,并增强了浮游植物的种类多样性,使东海浮游植物群落组成表现出明显的季节、空间变化。
关键词:  东海  黑潮  浮游植物  群落组成  季节变化
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The influence of Kuroshio with Phytoplankton community composition and distribution in the East China sea
SUN ZHENHAO, JIANG ZHIBING, ZHAN LIN, ZHU YUANLI, ZENG JIANGNING, CHEN QUANZHEN, CHEN JIANFANG
Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR
Abstract:
The intrusion of Kuroshio profoundly influences the ecology and environment of the East China Sea (ECS). However, its influence on phytoplankton community composition and distribution remain unclear. To analyze the phytoplankton abundance and dominant species composition and their responses to the Kuroshio intrusion into the ECS, phytoplankton samples were collected vertically using net trawl method from 164 stations (26°~33°N, 121°~128°E) in the four seasons. Among all the samples collected, 9 phyla and 509 species were identified, including 305 diatom, 154 dinoflagellate, and a few cyanobacteria, haptophyta, chrysophyte, euglenophyte, chlorophyte, cryptophyte, and xanthophyte species. The seasonal pattern of phytoplankton abundance showed autumn (30496.91 cells/L) > summer (28911.28 cells/L) > spring (19180.76 cells/L) > winter (472.36 cells/L). High phytoplankton abundance was observed in the front between Kuroshio and the Changjiang Diluted Water, the southeast of Zhoushan Islands, and the southeast part of the ECS. A high-temperature and high-salinity species, Trichodesmium thiebautii was dominant in winter under, the intrusion of Kuroshio surface water. Skeletonema spp. was dominant in spring and summer. Phytoplankton abundance was higher in summer than in spring because the enhanced Changjiang Diluted water and intrusion of Kuroshio subsurface water carried abundant nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. In autumn, phytoplankton abundance and dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentration were the highest due to the influence of Kuroshio surface water and subsurface water; the community was mainly dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. The species number showed autumn > winter > summer > spring. A large number of warm-water phytoplankton species was found in Kuroshio water, resulting in increased species number from coastal to offshore waters. Similarity analysis and multidimensional scaling showed that phytoplankton community composition varied significantly with seasonal and spatial scale. These results demonstrated that the abundant phosphorus and offshore warm-water species transported by Kuroshio promoted the growth of phytoplankton and enhanced the species diversity, which profoundly influence seasonal and spatial pattern of the phytoplankton community composition in the ECS.
Key words:  East China Sea  Kuroshio  Phytoplankton  Community composition  Seasonal variation
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