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引用本文:张伟权,于琳江,童保福,李光友,丁美丽,鲍鹰,何晋伟,王世震,C.R.阿诺尔特,张仕君.南美洲白对虾全人工授精技术研究.海洋与湖沼,1993,24(4):428-432.
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南美洲白对虾全人工授精技术研究
张伟权1, 于琳江1, 童保福1, 李光友1, 丁美丽1, 鲍鹰1, 何晋伟1, 王世震1, C.R.阿诺尔特2, 张仕君3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 青岛 266071;2.德克萨斯大学海洋研究所 美国 TX 78373;3.山东省海阳县小滩盐厂 265100
摘要:
于1988年4月和1991年4月分别从厄瓜多尔和美国引进南美洲白对虾仔虾,经驯化、养成和室内人工越冬后,采用单侧眼柄切除手术人工催熟,以试管授精和人工植荚方法进行该种的繁殖技术试验。结果表明,(1)体长在13—16cm的南美洲白对虾雌虾,一般在摘眼后的1—2周内开始性腺发育;产卵量通常为3—10万粒;产卵后的雌虾卵巢可再次发育,最高产卵次数高达17次。(2)应用高频电针法取荚的成功率和取荚后雄虾的存活率均为100%;用上述方法取得的精荚内的精子无需“获能”即可使卵子受精。(3)假裂现象在南美洲白对虾的未受精卵中较为普遍。
关键词:  南美洲白对虾  全人工授精  假裂  卵巢再次发育
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院海洋研究所调查研究报告第2189号。中国科学院重大项目,KY85-08-01-01号
附件
STUDIES ON THE FULL-ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF PENAEUS VANNAMEI
Zhang Weiquan1, Yu Linjiang1, Tong Baofu1, Li Guangyou1, Ding Meili1, Bao Ying1, He Jinwei1, Wang Shizhen1, C. R. Arnold2, Zhang Shijun3
1.Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, Qingdtto, 266071;2.University of Texas, Marine Science Institute, fort Aransas, U. S. A., TX 78373;3.Xiaotan Salt Farm of Haiyang County, Shandong Province 265100
Abstract:
In this study, conducted from April, 1988 to August, 1992, three groups of P. vannamei postlarvae were achieved successfully using full-artificial fertilization technique. The parent shrimps used in tests were introduced from Ecuador and the United States in 1988 and 1992 respectively and grew up in fabric tanks. The fertilization rate of eggs was 2 to 22 percent.

In 27 - 30°C, health female shrimp of P. vannamei, 13 - 16 cm in body length, began to mature and spawn about 1 - 2 weeks late after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The number (from 30 000 to 100 000) of eggs per spawning for one female shrimp ranged, closely related to its size. The spawner could mature and spawn again within 3 - 5 days, with a minimum of 48 h only. It was recorded that a female shrimp matured and spawned up to 17 times in this study. In general, a female shrimp was accompanied by moulting after 3 - 5 times of successive spawning.

Spermatophore was obtained using electric acupuncture. Both the rate of spermatophore obtaining and the survival of male shrimp were 100%. The sperm obtained directely from ampoules of male shrimp was functionally ripe, i.e. it was capable of fertilizing oocytes without capacitation in thelycum of female shrimp.

The size of the lst maturation of ovary developing restricts the following size of successive maturz1tion.

It was common for non-fertilized eggs of P. vannamei to undergo pseudo-cleavage about 2 - 3 h late after spawning. Just the same as fertilized eggs, non-fertilized eggs began to exocytose its cortical rod to form the egg jelly soon after spawning into seawater and then release the first and second polar body and elevate the “fertilization membrane".

Key words:  Penaeus vannamei, Full-Artificial fertilization, Pseudo-cleavage, Ovary redevelopment
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