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引用本文:黄鹤忠,王永强,程建新,周刚,杨彩根,宋学宏,董海辉.太湖中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)养殖模式优化及其生态环境效应研究.海洋与湖沼,2006,37(5):430-436.
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太湖中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)养殖模式优化及其生态环境效应研究
黄鹤忠1, 王永强2, 程建新2, 周刚3, 杨彩根1, 宋学宏1, 董海辉1
1.苏州大学生命科学学院 苏州大学水产科学研究所 苏州215006;2.江苏省太湖渔业管理委员会 苏州215004;3.江苏省淡水水产研究所 南京210017
摘要:
于2003年3—10月,通过在太湖中设置15个封闭性实验围隔,构建出5种生态型中华绒螯蟹养殖模式,即放养中华绒螯蟹(规格6.25±0.36g/ind)+螺蛳+水草分别为:3000ind/ha+0kg/ha+3000kg/ha(I)、3000ind/ha+2250kg/ha+3000kg/ha(Ⅱ)、4500ind/ha+2250kg/ha+6000kg/ha(III)、4500ind/ha+3375kg/ha+6000kg/ha(Ⅳ)、6750ind/ha+3375kg/ha+6000kg/ha(Ⅴ),比较分析其养殖效果及其生态环境效应。结果表明,生物学效果综合指数依次为Ⅳ>Ⅴ>III>Ⅱ>I,其中Ⅳ、Ⅴ、III显著高于Ⅱ、I (P<0.05)。各养殖模式的水温、pH值、CODCr含量和浮游动物多样性指数、底栖动物多样性指数与湖区无显著性差异(P>0.05),而各养殖模式的DO和III、Ⅳ的SD、水色、电导率、TSS、N、P、浮游植物密度和浮游植物多样性指数等理化和生物环境指标均显著优于湖区(P<0.05);N、P平衡分析表明,在全部采收养殖体系内水草的情况下,各养殖模式均能从水体中净输出N、P, 其中III、Ⅳ的净输出效率最高。相关分析显示, 养殖体系内的水质环境状况随着水草和螺蛳数量的增加而得到显著改善。因此, 增栽水草、放养螺蛳、适中的中华绒螯蟹放养量和适宜的管理措施是维持中华绒螯蟹养殖生态系统环境效益和养殖效益良好的重要条件, 有利于太湖渔业生产和环境保护的可持续发展。
关键词:  中华绒螯蟹  养殖模式  生态环境  太湖  优化
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:江苏省重点科技攻关项目,BE2001386号;苏州市重点科技攻关项目,ZN0308号;江苏省水产三项更新工程项目,PJ2001-06号
附件
OPTIMIZATION OF MIXED AQUICULTURE FOR ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT IN TAIHU LAKE
HUANG He-Zhong1, WANG Yong-Qiang2, CHENG Jian-Xin2, ZHOU Gang3, YANG Cai-Gen1, SONG Xue-Hong1, DONG Hai-Hui1
1.Institute of Life Science, Suzhou University, Fisheries Research Institute of Suzhou University, Suzhou, 215006;2.Taihu Lake Fisheries Management Committee of Jiangsu Province, Suzhou, 215004;3.Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, 210017
Abstract:
For reaching the optimal aquiculture condition for Eriocheir sinensis and understanding the ecological impact in Taihu Lake, five different groups in which the crabs were co-cultured with snails and water grasses were tested in 15 experimental enclosures (5m × 5m) in Taihu Lake. Every group involved E. sinensis [weight (6.25±0.36) g/ind], snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), and submersed macrophytes (Elodea nutallii, Vallisnerria spiralis L. and Hydrilla verticillata Royle), but in different combinations. The densities of the crab, snail and water grass in the five groups were designed at 3000 ind/ha + 0kg/ha + 3000kg/ha (I), 3000 ind/ha + 2250kg/ha + 3000kg/ha(II), 4500 ind/ha + 2250kg/ha + 6000kg/ha (III), 4500 ind/ha + 3375kg/ha + 6000kg/ha(Ⅳ) and 6750 ind/ha + 3375kg/ha + 6000kg/ha(Ⅴ), respectively. The experiment lasted for 212 days. The outcome indicated by indices of biological effect among the five groups was Ⅳ>Ⅴ>III>Ⅱ>I; and those of Groups Ⅳ, Ⅴ and III were significantly higher than other two’s (P<0.05). The water temperature, pH value, CODCr value, diversity index of zooplankton and diversity index of zoobenthos in every group were not significantly different from those of in open lake water(P>0.05). But the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in all groups and the transparency (SD), apparent water color, conductivity, total suspended solid particulate matter (TSS), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), phytoplankton biomass and diversity index of phytoplankton in Groups III and Ⅳ were better than those in the outside water(P<0.05). The nutrient balance showed that all the groups could yield N and P from the water after all submersed macrophytes were harvested. The best output efficiency o f N and P was found in Groups III and Ⅳ. The correlation analysis indicated that more submersed macrophytes and snail would benefit the water quality. Therefore, coculturing the crab with macrophytes and snails is highly recommend, which would greatly enhance the aquiculture in a healthy ecological environment as well as in protection of the lake.
Key words:  Eriocheir sinensis, Aquiculture pattern, Ecological environment, The Taihu Lake, Optimization
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