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东海表层海水中微塑料分布与组成
刘涛1,2, 孙晓霞1,2,3, 朱明亮1, 梁俊华1, 赵永芳1
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 山东胶州湾海洋生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院大学 北京 100049
摘要:
本文通过2015年夏季在东海水域进行采样,对东海表层水体中微塑料的空间分布和组成进行了定量与定性分析。结果表明:东海表层海水中广泛存在微塑料,微塑料的分布密度在0.011—2.198piece/m3之间,平均含量为0.31piece/m3。微塑料的长度多在500μm至5mm之间,占88.6%;其形态多为泡沫状(54.8%),其次是块状(21.4%)和薄膜状(11.8%);其外观多呈现为白色(71.9%)和彩色(18.5%);其化学成分主要是聚乙烯(45.5%)和聚丙烯(34.6%)。对形态、颜色和化学组成的分析表明,这些微塑料主要来源于陆地,在沿海通过海岸或河流进入海洋。河流和洋流的运动是影响微塑料迁移而导致其分布不均状况的主要因素。与国内外已有相关研究结果的比较表明东海微塑料的分布密度处于中等水平。
关键词:  微塑料  表层海水  东海  海洋碎屑  分布与组成
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20170100021
分类号:P76
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02号;政府间国际科技创新合作重点专项,2016YFE0101500号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类),XDA11030204号。
DISTRIBUTION AND COMPOSITION OF MICROPLASTICS IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE EAST CHINA SEA
LIU Tao1,2, SUN Xiao-Xia1,2,3, ZHU Ming-Liang1, LIANG Jun-Hua1, ZHAO Yong-Fang1
1.Jiaozhou Bay Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environment Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
We characterized suspended microplastics in the East China Sea quantitatively and qualitatively. Water samples were collected in summer 2015. The results indicated that microplastics were ubiquitous in the surface seawater of the East China Sea, and the concentration of microplastics ranged from 0.011-2.198piece/m3, in average of 0.31piece/m3. In this study, the majority of plastics ranged from 500μm to 5mm in size, which constituted 88.58% of the total samples. The most frequent geometries were foams, followed by fragments, and films, accounted for 54.8%, 21.4%, and 11.8% of the total samples, respectively. The most frequent color was white, taking 71.9% of the total, followed by colored ones for 18.5%. The most frequent chemical composition of microplastics were polyethylene and polypropylene, accounted for 45.5% and 34.6% of the total, respectively. The microplastics pieces were mostly originated from plastic litter from terrestrial sources. The current movement was the main factor of their distribution. Compared with other studies in the world, we found that the concentration of microplastics in the surface seawater in the East China Sea was in intermediate level.
Key words:  microplastics  surface seawater  the East China Sea  marine debris  distribution and composition
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