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内潮耗散与自吸-负荷潮对南海潮波影响的数值研究
姜锦东1, 方国洪1,2, 滕飞1, 徐晓庆1
1.国家海洋局第一海洋研究所海洋环境科学和数值模拟重点实验室 青岛 266061;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室区域海洋动力学与数值模拟功能实验室 青岛 266200
摘要:
利用非结构三角形网格的FVCOM海洋数值模式,在其传统二维潮波方程中加入参数化的内潮耗散项和自吸-负荷潮项,计算了南海及其周边海域的M2、S2、K1和O1分潮的分布。与实测值的比较表明,引入这两项对模拟准确度的提高有明显效果。根据模式结果本文计算分析了研究海域的潮能输入和耗散。能量输入计算表明,能通量是潮能输入的最主要构成部分,通过吕宋海峡断面进入南海的M2和K1分潮能通量分别为38和29GW;半日周期的自吸-负荷潮能量输入以负值居多,而全日周期的自吸-负荷潮能量输入以正值居多,因而自吸-负荷潮减弱了南海的半日潮,并加强了南海的全日潮。引潮力的作用也减弱了半日潮而加强了全日潮,但其作用要小于自吸-负荷潮。潮能耗散的分析显示底摩擦耗散在沿岸浅水区域起主导作用,内潮耗散则主要发生在深水区域。内潮耗散的最大值出现在吕宋海峡,且位于南海之外的海峡东部的耗散量大于位于南海之内的海峡西部的耗散量。对M2和K1分潮吕宋海峡的内潮耗散总值分别达到16和23GW。
关键词:  潮汐  潮汐能量  内潮耗散  自吸负荷潮  南海
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20171200316
分类号:P731
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目,2016YFB0201100号;国家自然科学基金项目,41606036号;中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目,2013G01号;中国近海及邻近海区海洋与地球潮汐相互作用研究,40676009号。
DISSIPATION AND SELF-ATTRACTION-AND LOADING OF INTERNAL TIDES: IMPACT ON THE TIDAL WAVES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA
JIANG Jin-Dong1, FANG Guo-Hong1,2, TENG Fei1, XU Xiao-Qing1
1.Key Laboratory of Marine Science and Numerical Modeling, the First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Qingdao 266061, China;2.Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266200, China
Abstract:
Based on the finite-volume coastal ocean numerical model (FVCOM), a parameterized internal tide dissipation and the forcing term of the self-attraction and loading (SAL) tide are introduced into the two-dimensional tidal wave equations to simulate the principal tidal constituents M2, S2, K1, and O1 in the South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent areas. The comparison between modeled results and observations indicates that the inclusion of these two terms that introduced could improve simulated results significantly. The tidal energy input and dissipation are computed and analyzed based on modeled results. The energy input computation shows that the energy flux dominates the total energy input. The energy fluxes of the constituents M2 and K1 entering the SCS through a cross-section of the Luzon Strait amount to 38 and 29 GW respectively. The energy inputs due to semidiurnal SAL tides mostly have negative values, while those due to diurnal SAL tides mostly have positive values, showing that the SAL tides can reduce the semidiurnal ocean tides and enhance the diurnal ocean tides in the SCS. The tide-generating force can also reduce the semidiurnal ocean tides and enhance the diurnal ocean tides in the SCS, but its effect is weaker than that of SAL tides. The analysis of tidal energy dissipation shows that the bottom friction dissipation plays a dominant role in coastal shallow water areas and the internal tide dissipation dominates in deep water areas. The greatest internal tide dissipation occurs in the Luzon Strait with a greater dissipation in the eastern strait outside of the SCS and a relatively less dissipation within the western strait inside the SCS. The total internal tide dissipations in the strait for M2 and K1 amount to 16 and 23GW respectively.
Key words:  tides  tidal energy  internal tide dissipation  self-attraction and loading tide  South China Sea
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