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黄海绿潮研究:回顾与展望
于仁成1,2,3,4, 孙松1,2,3,4, 颜天1,2,4, 周名江1
1.中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室(中国科学院海洋研究所) 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;4.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
自2007年以来,南黄海海域连年发生大规模绿潮(green tides),至2018年已连续12年出现。大规模绿潮对南黄海西部沿海一线的景观、环境和养殖业造成了严重破坏,已经成为黄海海域一类常态化的生态灾害问题。每年夏季,苏、鲁沿海一线地方政府都要投入大量人力物力,对海滩上堆积的绿藻进行收集和处理。针对绿潮问题,我国政府组织相关学者,围绕绿潮起源、成因、危害、监测和防控进行了大量调查和研究工作。经过多年研究,在黄海绿潮原因种及其鉴定方法、黄海绿潮起源地与早期发展过程、影响黄海绿潮的关键因素等方面已经有了比较系统、深入的认识,确认了黄海绿潮的原因种为浒苔(Ulva prolifera),发现黄海绿潮主要起源于南黄海西部的苏北浅滩海域,基本阐明了浅滩区绿潮早期发展的关键过程。浒苔自身的生物学特性、苏北浅滩独特的海域环境特征,以及浅滩区的养殖活动是影响黄海绿潮形成的关键要素。但是,在绿潮原因种浒苔的最初来源、绿潮的生态效应,绿潮演变趋势以及绿潮防控对策等方面仍需进一步开展研究工作。为验证黄海绿潮成因方面的科学认识,对绿潮防控工作提供思路和技术保障,青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室设立了鳌山科技创新计划项目“近海生态灾害发生机理与防控策略”,将黄海绿潮作为一项重要生态灾害问题开展研究,旨在进一步阐明绿潮成因,为绿潮防控提供坚实的科学依据。
关键词:  黄海  绿潮  成因  防控
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180700158
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目,41676106号;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)资助,XDA11020304号;国家自然科学基金委-山东省联合基金项目,U1606404号。
PROGRESSES AND PERSPECTIVES ON GREEN-TIDE STUDIES IN THE YELLOW SEA
YU Ren-Cheng1,2,3,4, SUN Song1,2,3,4, YAN Tian1,2,4, ZHOU Ming-Jiang1
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
Large-scale green tides, which have been recorded in the Yellow Sea for 12 years since 2007, posed significant impacts on the scenery, environment and mariculture industry along the west coast of the southern Yellow Sea. Green tides have been considered as a routine marine ecological disaster in the Yellow Sea, and regional governments of Jiangsu and Shandong provinces have to put huge manpower and resources every year to collect and manage the green algae accumulated along the coastline. Targeting on the green tides in the Yellow Sea, Chinese government organized scientists to work together intensively on the origin, mechanisms, impacts, monitoring and control of green tides during the last decade, and significant progresses have been made on the bloom-forming species, origin of green tides, and key factors affecting the green tides. The major bloom-forming green alga has been identified as Ulva prolifera, and the origin of green tides have been traced back to the Subei Shoal along the west coast of the southern Yellow Sea. Major processes related to the early development of green tides in Subei Shoal have been elucidated. The biological characteristics, unique environmental features of Subei Shoal, as well as the intensive mariculture activities in Subei Shoal are key factors leading to the formation of green tides. Some questions, however, still need to be answered in future studies, such as the origin of unique bloom-forming U. prolifera, the long-term trend of green tides in the Yellow Sea, the ecological consequences of recurrent green tides, and the prevention and control strategies against green tides etc. Focusing on the green tide issue in the Yellow Sea, a project "mechanisms and prevention strategies on marine ecological disasters" was supported recently by the Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology to test the ideas on the formation of green tides, and to offer knowledge and techniques on the monitoring and prevention strategies on green tides.
Key words:  Yellow Sea  green tide  mechanism  prevention
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