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黄海海域大规模绿潮成因与应对策略——“鳌山计划”研究进展
颜天1,2,3, 于仁成1,2,3, 周名江1,2,3, 孙松1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与 环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
在青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室“鳌山计划”支持下,本项目围绕黄海大规模浒苔绿潮的防控减灾,联合山东和江苏两地多个单位协作攻关,于2016年到2018年展开了多学科交叉研究,通过对绿潮藻浒苔(Ulva prolifera)的附着、入海等行为的加密观测,在大规模浒苔绿潮成因机制和防控策略方面取得了重要进展,确认了苏北浅滩源地,确认本海区大量紫菜(Pyropia yezoensis)栽培筏架提供的大面积合适附着基、典型的富营养化环境特点以及北向风生流是黄海大规模浒苔绿潮形成的重要条件。本项目解决了以下几方面的问题:1.锁定关键时段和海域并开展打捞船与人机配合打捞;2.发现苏北浅滩存在独特浒苔种源;3.定量化研究了紫菜筏架拆除时人为去除筏架及绠绳上的附生绿藻量,明确这一过程大大促进了浒苔大量集中入海,成为浒苔绿潮形成的重要环节;4.定量化研究了浒苔在向北漂移,生物量和分布不断增加的过程;5.依据对浒苔緑潮的源头及其早期发生、发展几个关键过程的科学认识,提出了设置三道防线进行浒苔绿潮防控的策略以及在苏北浅滩开展浒苔绿潮初始生物量源头控制的具体建议。6.评价了浒苔绿潮对生态环境和养殖业危害的同时,关注了高生物量输入对受灾地可能带来生物北侵的生态风险。7.为保障2018年青岛上合峰会,项目组先期提交了绿潮防控建议,部署和开展的各项研究和现场调查结果为绿潮的预测防控提供了有力支撑。同时本项目还针对浒苔绿潮灾害的年际变化、马尾藻(Sargassum sp.)金潮灾害加剧、南黄海“三潮齐发”的复杂态势等新问题展开了观测与研究,为进一步制订更科学高效的防灾减灾方案,阐明全球变化和人类活动影响下的我国近海藻华灾害的演变奠定了基础。
关键词:  黄海  浒苔  绿潮  成因  防控
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180700156
分类号:
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)资助,XDA11020304号;国家自然科学基金委-山东省联合基金项目,U1606404号。
MECHANISM OF MASSIVE FORMATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGY AGAINST LARGE-SCALE GREEN TIDES IN THE SOUTH YELLOW SEA
YAN Tian1,2,3, YU Ren-Cheng1,2,3, ZHOU Ming-Jiang1,2,3, SUN Song1,2,3
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
This "Green Tide" Project funded by the "Aoshan Program" of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology has been carried out in Shandong and Jiangsu provinces in 2016-2018, focusing on the disaster mitigation of green tides (induced mainly by Ulva prolifera) in the south Yellow Sea. Significant progress has been made on the mechanism of formation and the strategy of mitigation of the green tides in multidisciplinary studies, during which more than 20 cruises in the South Yellow Sea were conducted and multiple research methods applied, including on-site investigation, satellite remote sensing, and simulation experiment, etc. The results show that the massive floating U. prolifera could be traced back to the offshore aquaculture areas in Subei Shoal, North Jiangsu. Under appropriate conditions of temperature and nutrition supply, U. prolifera could grow quickly and move into Qingdao offshore regions by favorable winds and oceanographic conditions. The green tide outbreaks are closely due to the unique nature of U. prolifera for bloom-forming, favorable ambient conditions of the Subei Shoal, and massive aquaculture activities in the origination areas. Based on the key factors of the origination, the algal attachment/de-attachment, the early stage of the greed tide formation, the environmental and ecological impacts, and the prevention strategy by three front lines setup have been suggested to mitigate the green tide development from the offshore areas of Subei Shoal to the Shandong Peninsula, and countermeasures were proposed to minimize the algal biomass at the source area of the Subei Shoal.
Key words:  the Yellow Sea  Ulva prolifera  green tides  formation mechanism  prevention strategy
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