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黄海绿潮浒苔漂浮生态型的发现与启示
姜鹏1,2,3, 赵瑾1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 实验海洋生物学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
黄海绿潮已经成为常态化发生的海洋生态灾害。遗传分析结果表明,黄海绿潮藻主体由浒苔(Ulva prolifera)的单一群体构成。基于其特殊的基因型、表型,及其占据的独特生态位与生活方式,将其命名为“漂浮生态型”(floating ecotype)。浒苔漂浮生态型的发现,为黄海绿潮关键生态学过程的量化表征提供了重要抓手。基于SCAR特异分子标记的示踪研究表明,在绿潮早期浒苔入海阶段,苏北浅滩紫菜筏架发挥了重要作用;在海上暴发漂移阶段,漂浮生态型在漂浮藻中具有极高的优势度。上述发现提示,黄海绿潮存在重要的生物学成因,应加强针对漂浮生态型适应性特征及其遗传基础的比较研究。鉴于漂浮生态型在山东半岛南岸已零星定殖,提出应关注由于种源北侵和紫菜栽培产业北移带来的潜在风险。上述科学认识对于深刻理解黄海绿潮的成因与发生机制、建立可行的灾害防控措施、科学预测黄海绿潮的演变趋势具有重要意义。
关键词:  浒苔  黄海  绿潮  漂浮生态型
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180800199
分类号:
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02-1号;国家自然科学基金,41776153号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类),XDA11020304号。
IDENTIFICATION OF FLOATING ECOTYPE OF ULVA PROLIFERA: IMPLICATION FOR THE GREEN TIDE IN THE YELLOW SEA
JIANG Peng1,2,3, ZHAO Jin1,2,3
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
As a kind of oceanic ecological disaster that occurs normally, the Yellow Sea green tides has been proved to be triggered by one unique population of Ulva prolifera. Based on its distinctive genotype, phenotype, ecological niche and lifestyle, this population was named after the "floating ecotype". With the identification of floating ecotype and tracing of specific genetic marker, the quantitative characterization for some crucial ecological processes of the Yellow Sea green tides has been improved. It was revealed that at the beginning stage of green tides, the aquaculture rafts for nori in Subei Shoal played an important role. In addition, at the drifting stage on the sea, the floating ecotype exhibited an extremely high dominance. The biotic cause for the seaweed blooming was highly inspired, and the risk of northward bio-invasion by this ecotype was suggested, since small-scale establishment of this floating ecotype has been detected along the southern coast of Shandong peninsula. These new findings and implications would be of great importance in understanding the cause and mechanism of seaweed blooming, establishing feasible measures for disaster management, and forecasting the evolution trends of the Yellow Sea green tides.
Key words:  Ulva prolifera  the Yellow Sea  green tide  floating ecotype
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