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2017年绿潮浒苔(Ulva prolifera)生理特征及孢子囊形成情况分析
郑阵兵1,2,3,4, 高山1,2,4, 王广策1,2,4
1.中国科学院海洋研究所实验生物学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266235;3.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;4.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071
摘要:
近几年来在我国青岛海域连续暴发的浒苔绿潮造成了巨大的经济损失并且破坏了近海海洋生态系统平衡。因此,浒苔绿潮受到了越来越多的关注。本研究重点关注了绿潮暴发期间不同海域浒苔藻体生理特征和孢子囊形成情况。研究发现,不同海域里浒苔藻体生理特征差异显著,孢子囊比例显著不同,并且观察到漂浮浒苔的原位萌发。2017年5月中旬,我们在苏北浅滩紫菜养殖区域(33.78°N,121.29°E)对筏架绠绳上生长的绿藻,退潮后滩涂散落的绿藻和涨潮时海面上漂浮的绿藻进行为期5天的野外采集。另外,在2017年6月随科考船对浒苔暴发海域的浒苔样本进行采集。采集范围在(33.5°—36.5°N,120°—124°E)。结果表明,从低纬度到高纬度,浒苔Fv/Fm(光系统Ⅱ最大光化学量子产量)值从0.65逐渐降低至0.3左右;YⅡ (光系统Ⅱ实时光化学量子产量)值也从最高0.5左右降低至最低0.1。此外,定生浒苔Fv/Fm值为0.6—0.8左右,明显高于漂浮浒苔;YⅡ值也有类似趋势。在孢子囊形成比例方面,定生浒苔约有5%藻体形成了孢子囊,而漂浮浒苔中孢子囊形成比例达到20%。数据表明,低纬度区域为浒苔来源地,浒苔生理活性良好,孢子囊形成比例低。随着浒苔往北漂移,其生理活性降低。并且,漂浮浒苔孢子囊形成比例显著性高于定生浒苔。本文认为,浒苔脱离来源区后,孢子囊的快速形成、成熟和孢子释放以及孢子的原位萌发是浒苔生物量激增的重要原因。
关键词:  绿潮  浒苔  Fv/Fm  YII  孢子囊
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180200029
分类号:Q178.1;X171;X55
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02-01号;国家自然科学基金资助项目,41606161号。
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SPORANGIUM FORMATION OF GREEN-TIDE SPECIES ULVA PROLIFERA IN 2017
ZHENG Zhen-Bing1,2,3,4, GAO Shan1,2,4, WANG Guang-Ce1,2,4
1.Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China;3.College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
Ulva prolifera green tides occurred frequently in recent years along the coast of eastern China, especially in Qingdao, Shandong, which caused considerable damages to the local mariculture, oceanic ecology, and tourism. We studied the photosynthetic characteristics and sporangium formation of U. prolifera in different areas off the coast from northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong in mariculture raft and at sea before and during the green-tide occurrence in May-June 2017. We found that both the photosynthetic characteristics and the percentage of sporangium differed in the thalli of different samples. From 34°N-36.5°N, the Fv/Fm value decreased from around 0.65 to 0.3 and the YⅡ value decreased from 0.5 to 0.1. Moreover, Fv/Fm values of the attached thalli at raft was 0.6-0.8, which is much higher than that of floating thalli, and the YⅡ values presented a similar trend. The percentages of sporangium in attached thalli were 5% while that in floating thalli reached 20%. In general, the photosynthetic activities of the thalli in the south were better than that in the north. Moreover, the percentage of the mature sporangium of attached thalli was higher than that of floating thalli. Therefore, sporangium generation, spores releasing, and in-situ germination after U. prolifera floating away to the open sea are key factors of the green-tide boost.
Key words:  green tide  Ulva prolifera  Fv/Fm  YII  sporangium
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