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2017年春、夏季黄海35°N共发的绿潮、金潮和赤潮
孔凡洲1,2,3, 姜鹏4,5,3, 魏传杰6, 张清春1,2,3, 李继业7, 刘一霆7, 于仁成1,2,3,8, 颜天1,2,3, 周名江1
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071;4.中国科学院海洋研究所 实验海洋生物学重点实验室 青岛 266071;5.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266237;6.中国科学院海洋研究所 工程技术部 青岛 266071;7.国家海洋局北海环境监测中心 青岛 266033;8.中国科学院大学 北京 100049
摘要:
于2017年4月至6月,沿南黄海35°N断面出现了罕见的绿潮、金潮和赤潮等有害藻华共发现象。本研究通过现场定时定速拖网等方法,对黄海35°N断面不同站位的大型漂浮藻类进行了定量观测,并对赤潮区浮游植物进行了显微镜观察。结果表明:沿35°N断面的漂浮绿藻和马尾藻生物量具有明显的时空变化特征,4月下旬漂浮绿藻和马尾藻开始零星出现,5月下旬生物量和分布范围明显增加,在6月上旬达到最大,随后在6月下旬降低。漂浮绿藻和马尾藻的分布区域存在差异,120°30'—122°30'E为两者共同分布海域,向西以漂浮绿藻为主,向东则以马尾藻为主。分别于5月下旬和6月下旬在黄海35°N断面发现了1次米氏凯伦藻(Karenia mikimotoi)赤潮和1次赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)赤潮。基于现场获取的水文数据,本文对南黄海海域的环境条件及其对有害藻华分布的影响进行了讨论。沿35°N断面共发的绿潮、金潮和赤潮现象表明黄海海域正面临严峻的海洋生态问题,通过对该海域赤潮、金潮和绿潮的长期观测,可望揭示这些藻华灾害形成机制和演变规律,为针对性地开展有害藻华预报、预警和防控提供科学依据。
关键词:  黄海  浒苔  绿潮  马尾藻  金潮  赤潮
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180400082
分类号:X55
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02号;中国科学院先导专项(A类),XDA11020304号;国家自然科学基金委-山东省联合基金,U1606404号;国家产业技术体系建设(藻类产业技术体系),CARS-50号。
CO-OCCURENCE OF GREEN TIDE, GOLDEN TIDE AND RED TIDES ALONG THE 35°N TRANSECT IN THE YELLOW SEA DURING SPRING AND SUMMER IN 2017
KONG Fan-Zhou1,2,3, JIANG Peng4,5,3, WEI Chuan-Jie6, ZHANG Qing-Chun1,2,3, LI Ji-Ye7, LIU Yi-Ting7, YU Ren-Cheng1,2,3,8, YAN Tian1,2,3, ZHOU Ming-Jiang1
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;5.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;6.Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;7.North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266033, China;8.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
Unusual co-occurrence of green tide, golden tide, and red tides was observed along the 35°N transect in the southern Yellow Sea from April to June in 2017. Using the trawling method, biomass of different floating macroalgae was measured at all sampling sites along the 35°N transect for four times in 2017. Meanwhile, species and abundance of microalgae were determined with a microscopy in sites affected by red tides. The results show that biomass of floating green alga Ulva prolifera and brown alga Sargassum horneri had distinct spatial and temporal distributions. The floating macroalgae appeared in late April sporadically, and increased evidently in late May. Their biomass reached the peaks in early June, and decreased in late June. The distribution patterns of green tide and golden tide were different as well. They shared a common distribution in the sea area from 120°30'-122°30'E along the 35°N transect, to the east of which was the golden tide and to the west, green tide mainly. A Kerenia mikimotoi red tide and a Heterosigma akashiwo red tide were found in late May and late June, respectively. Based on the hydrological data, the environment conditions and their possible influence on the distribution of algal blooms were also analyzed. The co-occurrence of red tides, green tide, and golden tide in the Yellow Sea indicated gradual degradation of marine environment and serious situation of ecosystem changes in this region. It was suggested that long-term observations of red tide, green tide and golden tide should be performed to elucidate the formation mechanism and evolution pattern of harmful algal blooms in the Yellow Sea, and to offer sound basis for the prediction, forecasting, and mitigation of these ecological disasters.
Key words:  the Yellow Sea  Ulva prolifera  green tide  Sargassum  golden tide  red tide
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