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长牡蛎和紫贻贝对浒苔微观繁殖体生物控制的可行性研究
高亚平1, 方建光1,2, 房景辉1, 赵永超3, 吉红九3, 李文豪1,4, 王晓芹1, 李凤雪1,4, 蒋增杰1,2
1.农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.江苏省海洋水产研究所 南通 226007;4.上海海洋大学 上海 201306
摘要:
近年来我国绿潮灾害频发,滤食性贝类对浒苔的生物防控是潜在的防控策略之一。本研究基于实验室内可控实验,探究了长牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)和紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)对浒苔微观繁殖体的滤食作用,并在江苏如东紫菜养殖区进行了长牡蛎和紫贻贝离底式平挂养殖试验。室内滤除实验结果表明,牡蛎和贻贝均可有效截留浒苔微观繁殖体,平均截留速率分别为6892和1589ind/(ind·h),部分被截留的颗粒失去萌发活性,有效滤除速率为3980和574ind/(ind·h)。现场养殖实验结果表明,长牡蛎和紫贻贝可在紫菜养殖区生长存活,每天约能滤除水体中63.7万个浒苔微观繁殖体。研究证实了两种贝类对微观繁殖体的有效滤除能力及江苏浅滩进行牡蛎和贻贝养殖的可行性。养殖方式的进一步的优化改进,以及研究江苏浅滩其他滩涂贝类对浒苔的防控潜力,还需进一步深入开展。
关键词:  浒苔  微观繁殖体  长牡蛎  紫贻贝  生物防控
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180400078
分类号:X43
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02-1号;国家贝类产业技术体系养殖容量评估与管理岗位,CARS-49号。
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL FEASIBILITY OF PACIFIC OYSTER CRASSOSTREA GIGAS AND BULE MUSSEL MYTILUS EDULIS ON ULVA PROLIFERA MICROSCOPIC PROPAGULES
GAO Ya-Ping1, FANG Jian-Guang1,2, FANG Jing-Hui1, ZHAO Yong-Chao3, JI Hong-Jiu3, LI Wen-Hao1,4, WANG Xiao-Qin1, LI Feng-Xue1,4, JIANG Zeng-Jie1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Marine Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu, Nantong 226007, China;4.Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Abstract:
The biological control by filter-feeding shellfish Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis against Ulva prolifera was tested to put off frequent green algae bloom recently occurred in China. Laboratory experiments were conducted using oyster C. gigas and mussel M. edulis to control U. prolifera microscopic propagules. The field horizontally hanging culture of C. gigas and M. edulis were also carried out in the laver culture area of Rudong, Jiangsu Province. The experiments showed that the oyster and mussel could effectively retain the microscopic propagules, and the retention rate was 6892 and 1589ind/(ind·h), respectively, and the retained microscopic propagules lost germination activity. The two shellfish could effectively filter out the microscopic propagules at a rate of 3980 and 574ind/(ind·h), respectively. Horizontally hanging culture experiments showed that the shellfish could grow and survive in the laver culture area, and filtered out about 637000 microscopic propagules in the water every day. Therefore, the two shellfish could depress effectively the U. prolifera microscopic propagation, and the green method could be promoted in practice for the local mariculture sector. In the future, the optimization and improvement of the method shall be determined.
Key words:  Ulva prolifera  microscopic propagules  Crassostrea gigas  Mytilus edulis  biological control
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