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引用本文:林森杰,姬南京,罗昊.海洋有害藻华研究进展.海洋与湖沼,2019,(3):495-510.
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海洋有害藻华研究进展
林森杰, 姬南京, 罗昊
厦门大学近海海洋环境科学国家重点实验室 厦门 361102
摘要:
浮游植物不仅是食物链的基础环节,也在生物地球化学循环中起着重要作用。然而,某些种类在一定条件下会过度增殖富集形成有害藻华(因造成水色变为红、绿、褐、金等颜色,所以俗称为赤潮、绿潮、褐潮、金潮等),结果严重影响当地经济、海洋生态系统、全球生物地球化学循环甚至人类健康。近年来,随着水体富营养化、全球气候变化等现象加剧,有害藻华(Harmful Algal Bloom,HAB)的暴发规模和频次呈逐年增加趋势,且相关研究已成为环境生态学领域的热点。本文主要以典型海洋HAB生物为线索,从物种分布、生物监测、主要影响因素、分子机制及防治等方面概述了近十年HAB的主要研究进展,总结了现有研究的优点和不足,并对未来HAB研究做了相关展望。
近十年的研究进展主要体现在:(1)不断有新的HAB物种被发现或鉴定,HAB藻类系统分类也不断被更新;(2)鉴定、检测方法包括DNA分析、生物传感器研发应用等有较大改进;(3)藻类毒素生物合成通路的研究有一定进展;(4)在HAB生态学与海洋学研究持续发展的基础上,分子机制及现代组学发展较迅速。然而,HAB发生的关键环境诱因和生物学(特别是生化与分子)机制仍然不是很清楚,缺乏一个可用来预测HAB暴发的关键因子。笔者认为,一方面是因为HAB的复杂性、种类及生态系统的特异性,另一方面是研究缺乏系统性与完整性。因此未来有必要加强对每一个重要的HAB原因种开展系统、持续的研究,类似于生物科学领域里的模式种研究,并且有必要开展综合性的研究,如实验室单种培养、中尺度模拟及现场生态研究相结合,整合现代组学、传统生理生态学和现场实时连续观测等技术。
关键词:  浮游植物  有害藻华  分子机制
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180800191
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“典型致灾赤潮形成的分子机理及调控网络”项目,2017YFC1404302号;国家自然科学基金重点资助项目,41330959号;国家自然科学基金面上资助项目,41776116号
RECENT PROGRESS IN MARINE HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM RESEARCH
LIN Sen-Jie, JI Nan-Jing, LUO Hao
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
Abstract:
In a marine ecosystem, phytoplankton not only serves as the base of the food web, but also plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycle. However, some of the species could form exceptional blooms and cause significant damages to local economies, marine ecosystems, global biogeochemical cycle and human health. These events are known as harmful algal blooms (HABs), and are also commonly called Red Tides because some blooms can discolor the water in red or brown. HABs have increased in frequency, geographic extent, and intensity with eutrophication and global climate change, and its research is increasingly catching attention. In this review, we summarize the major progress in HAB research in the last decade, covering topic areas of species identification, influencing factors, and the molecular mechanisms of bloom formation. The current challenges and future prospects of HAB study are also discussed.
Over the past 10 years, advances have been made in HAB research, which can be summarized as follows. (1) Many new HAB species have been identified and the taxonomy has been significantly reconstructed and improved. (2) New methods and technologies for HAB monitoring and research are increasingly available. (3) There have been increasing efforts and improved understanding of biosynthesis pathways of algal toxins. (4) On top of the sustained ecological and oceanographic research of HABs, research of modern omics and molecular mechanisms has advanced significantly. However, the key environmental triggers and biological (particularly biochemical and molecular) mechanisms remain elusive, with no available triggering factor for predicting HAB outbreaks. The shortcoming is because HAB formation is a complex ecological process, which is likely species-specific and ecosystem-specific on the one hand, and because HAB research still falls short of integrated, comprehensive, and systematic manner on the other hand. We propose that in the future, more efforts should be invested in integrative, comprehensive, and systematic approach on key representative HAB species, similar to the research on model organisms in life science. This requires a combination of laboratory experiments on cultured species, mesocosm experiments on multi-species communities, and natural plankton assemblages, and in the meantime technological integration of modern omics, traditional physioecology, and real-time in situ monitoring.
Key words:  phytoplankton  harmful algal blooms  molecular mechanism
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