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引用本文:薛英楼,高菲,许强,黄端杰,王爱民,孙涛.黑海参(Holothuria atra)对环境沉积物的摄食选择及消化系统功能适应性研究.海洋与湖沼,2019,50(5):1070-1079.
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黑海参(Holothuria atra)对环境沉积物的摄食选择及消化系统功能适应性研究
薛英楼, 高菲, 许强, 黄端杰, 王爱民, 孙涛
南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室 海南大学海洋学院 海口 570228
摘要:
黑海参(Holothuria atra)是热带珊瑚礁大型底栖动物群落中的代表种类之一,其摄食活动对珊瑚礁生境底质有机物的循环再利用具有重要作用。本文研究了三亚蜈支洲岛典型热带珊瑚礁海域野生黑海参的沉积物选择特征及其触手和消化系统结构功能的适应性。结果表明,黑海参摄取的沉积物颗粒相对较粗,其中粒径>0.25mm部分占到了总重量的96.67%。触手上3-6个乳突形成乳突簇[直径(283.00±40.94)μm],适宜摄取大颗粒沉积物。黑海参胃内含物有机物含量显著高于环境沉积物,证实其对有机物含量的选择性;粒径>0.25mm部分有机物含量占摄入总有机物量的75%,与环境沉积物中相同粒度的有机物总量占比接近(76%),表明黑海参选择的沉积物粒径范围有效保证了其高效摄入有机质。黑海参前肠的脂肪酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶、胰蛋白酶活性最高,同时绝大部分的有机质(98.33%)在前肠被吸收。组织学定量分析表明,黑海参前肠黏膜层厚度最大,占总厚度的56.33%,这与其高效吸收有机质的功能相适应;后肠的肠壁总厚度和黏膜下层、肌层厚度均显著高于前肠和中肠,表明其具有相对更好的弹性和收缩能力,适合于大颗粒有机质的高效输送与排出。研究结果证实,黑海参摄食器官和消化道独特的结构与功能保证了其在珊瑚砂粗颗粒生境中高效摄取有机物。
关键词:  黑海参  珊瑚礁生境  摄食选择  消化系统  结构功能适应性
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20190200033
分类号:S917.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金,31760757号,41766005号;海南省哲学社会科学规划课题,HNSK(QN)16-42号;海南大学科研启动基金资助项目,KYQD(ZR)1703号。
STUDY ON FEEDING SELECTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SEDIMENTS AND DIGESTIVE FUNCTION ADAPTABILITY OF HOLOTHURIA ATRA
XUE Ying-Lou, GAO Fei, XU Qiang, HUANG Duan-Jie, WANG Ai-Min, SUN Tao
State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, College of Marine Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
Abstract:
Holothuria atra is one of the representative species of large benthic communities in tropical coral reef, and its feeding activity plays a vital role in the recycling of benthic organic matter in coral reef habitat. In this paper, the characteristics of sediment selection and the adaptability of structure and function of tentacles and digestive system of wild H atra in typical tropical coral reefs of wuzhizhou Island in Sanya, Hainan, South China were studied. The results show that the sediment particles consumed by H atra were relatively coarse, and the particle size >0.25mm part accounted for 96.67% of the total weight.The 3-6 mastoid processes on the tentacles form clusters of mastoid processes[diameter:(283.00±40.94)μm], which is suitable for the uptake of large sediments. The content of organic matter in the stomach of H atra was significantly higher than that in environmental sediments, which confirmed its selectivity to organic matter content. Part of the organic matter content accounts for 75% of the total organic matter intake, and the proportion of organic matter of the same particle size in environmental sediments is very close (76%), indicating that the selected sediment particle size range ensures effectively the adequate intake of organic matter. The activities of lipase, amylase, cellulose, and trypsin were the highest in the foregut of H. atra, and most organic matter (98.33%) was absorbed in the foregut. Histological quantitative analysis showed that the thickness of the intestinal mucosa of H. atra was the largest, accounting for 56.33% of the total thickness, which is consistent with its function of efficient absorption of organic matter. The total wall thickness, submucosal thickness, and muscular thickness of the hindgut were significantly higher than those of the foregut and midgut, indicating that the hindgut has better elasticity and contraction ability, and is suitable for efficient transport and discharge of sizeable organic matter. Therefore, the unique structure and function of feeding organs and digestive tract of H. atra ensured its efficient uptake of organic matter in the coarse granule habitat of coral sand.
Key words:  Holothuria atra  coral reef habitats  feeding selectivity  digestive system  structural-functional adaptability
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