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引用本文:薛泽,朱丽岩,王博渊,刘正宇.温度和盐度对两种海洋桡足类动物摄食和代谢的影响.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(1):95-102.
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温度和盐度对两种海洋桡足类动物摄食和代谢的影响
薛泽, 朱丽岩, 王博渊, 刘正宇
中国海洋大学海洋生命学院 青岛 266003
摘要:
本研究在实验室模拟生态条件下,以两种常见的海洋桡足类动物为受试生物,着重研究了温度和盐度变化对火腿许水蚤(Schmackeria poplesia)和拟长腹剑水蚤(Oithona similis)的滤水率、摄食率、耗氧率和排氨率的影响,统筹分析了两种海洋桡足类响应温度和盐度变化的摄食与代谢策略,以期为两种海洋桡足类的室内培养提供理论支持和技术指导。结果发现:(1)在5-30℃的温度范围内两种桡足类动物的摄食与代谢均呈现随温度升高而先升高后降低的变化趋势,其中火腿许水蚤的摄食率、滤水率、耗氧率和排氨率的最大值均出现在15℃,而拟长腹剑水蚤则在25℃到达峰值,说明拟长腹剑水蚤对温度具有较高的耐受性。(2)当暴露于不同盐度(15-35)时,火腿许水蚤可在低盐度(<25)条件下保持较高的摄食能力,且当盐度为25时其摄食率、滤水率达到峰值,之后便显著下降;拟长腹剑水蚤则在盐度为30时开始下降。前者的代谢能力在盐度为25时开始下降,后者在高盐度(35)时代谢能力依然有回升的趋势,说明拟长腹剑水蚤对盐度的耐受性更强。而火腿许水蚤及拟长腹剑水蚤对低盐度(20-25)有一定的偏好,二者通过强化自身代谢以抵消低盐度引起的渗透压变化对自身的影响。(3)基于氧氮比(O/N)变化的代谢作用分析显示:在整个温度梯度(10-25℃)中火腿许水蚤的氧氮比波动较大,而拟长腹剑水蚤除在高温(35℃)条件下,其氧氮比均低于24。盐度则会抑制火腿许水蚤的摄食能力从而迫使其分解体内储能物质(O/N>24),而对盐度耐受性较好的拟长腹剑水蚤则可始终维持较高的摄食和代谢能力(O/N<24)。因此拟长腹剑水蚤能在较大的温、盐度范围内保持稳定的氨氮代谢水平,具有更高的环境耐受性。
关键词:  摄食  代谢  温度  盐度  海洋桡足类
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20190700137
分类号:S917.4
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务经费,201822005号;NSFC-山东省联合基金,U1606404号。
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON FEEDING AND METABOLISM OF TWO MARINE COPEPODS
XUE Ze, ZHU Li-Yan, WANG Bo-Yuan, LIU Zheng-Yu
Academy of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Abstract:
Two common marine copepods were used as the test organisms under simulated ecological conditions in laboratory. The grazing rate, filtering rate, respiration rate, and ammonia excretion rate of Schmackeria poplesia and Oithona similis to the changes of temperature and salinity were studied, which will help to analyze the feeding and metabolic strategies of the two marine copepods, and provide theoretical support and technical guidance for the indoor culture. Results show that, the feeding and metabolic efficiency of the two copepods increased first and then decreased with the increase of temperature ranging 5-30℃. The maximum grazing rate, filtering rate, respiration rate, and ammonia excretion rate of S. poplesia appeared at 15℃, while those of O. similis peaked at 25℃, suggesting that O. similis was more tolerant to a high temperature. In salinity (15-35) test, could maintain a high feeding ability in low salinity (<25). At salinity 25, grazing rate and filtering rate of S. poplesia peaked and then decreased, while those of O. similis began to decline at salinity 30. The former' metabolic capacity began to decline at salinity 25, while the latter's showed a tendency to rebound at high salinity 35, indicating that O. similis was more tolerant to salinity. These two species had a similar reaction by increasing metabolism to alleviate the stress of osmotic pressure, and a low salinity (20-25) was more favorable to their growth. Metabolic analysis based on the change of oxygen/nitrogen ratio (O/N) showed that for, the ratio fluctuated largely in all the temperatures (10-25℃); and except for 35℃, the ratio dropped below 24 at all other temperatures. As salinity could inhibit the feeding ability and accelerate the decomposition of energy-storing materials in S. poplesia (O/N>24). For O. similis however, its good salinity tolerance could maintain a high level of feeding and metabolism (O/N<24). Therefore, O. similis can maintain a stable level of metabolism in a wide range of temperature and salinity, and has a greater environmental tolerance than S. poplesia.
Key words:  feeding  metabolism  temperature  salinity  marine copepods
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