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引用本文:赵永晶,王洪铸,崔永德.巢湖沿岸带底栖动物群落结构及其环境质量评价.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(3):520-527.
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巢湖沿岸带底栖动物群落结构及其环境质量评价
赵永晶, 王洪铸, 崔永德
中国科学院水生生物研究所 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室 武汉 430072
摘要:
2013年3月、6月、9月和11月四个季度对巢湖沿岸带24个站点(12个区域)底栖动物进行调查,分析了群落结构特征并进行环境质量评价。本次调查共采集到底栖动物64属种,以寡毛类和水生昆虫为主,合计占总种类数的68.7%。底栖动物的平均密度和平均生物量(无灰干重)分别是(1005±233)ind./m2和(2.24±1.29)g/m2。巢湖沿岸带底栖动物优势类群为颤蚓类和摇蚊幼虫。利用底栖动物种类数、寡毛类密度占比、摇蚊幼虫密度占比和软体动物密度占比四个指标,对巢湖沿岸带环境质量进行综合评价,结果显示巢湖东岸环境质量优于西岸,靠近合肥市的万年埠处于严重污染状态。典型对应分析结果表明,影响底栖动物群落结构的主要环境因子有底质、电导率和总氮。建议通过改善底质环境,恢复水生植被,削减总氮等措施来恢复巢湖沿岸带底栖动物群落多样性,提高巢湖生态环境质量。
关键词:  底栖动物  巢湖  沿岸带  群落结构  环境因子  评价
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20191100222
分类号:Q958.8
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目,2017ZX07302-002号;淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室,2019FBZ01号。
COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF MACROZOOBENTHOS AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN LITTORAL ZONE OF CHAOHU LAKE
ZHAO Yong-Jing, WANG Hong-Zhu, CUI Yong-De
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
Abstract:
Macrozoobenthos in the littoral zone of Chaohu Lake were investigated at 24 sites (12 regions) in four seasons of 2013 to understand the macrozoobenthos community structure and assess the environmental quality. Sixty-four taxa of macrozoobenthos were recorded, in which Oligochaetes and Aquatic Inscets were dominant, accounting for 68.7% of the taxa in number. The mean density and biomass (ash free dry weight) of macrozoobenthos were (1005±233)ind./m2 and (2.24±1.29)g/m2, respectively. The dominant taxa of macrozoobenthos were tubificids and chironomid larvae. The species number of macrozoobenthos and the ratios of Oligochaetes density, chironomid larvae density, and Molluscs density to the corresponding totals were used for the environmental quality assessment. Results show that the environmental quality of the eastern coast was better than the western coast, and that of Wannianbu near the Hefei City was poor as being heavily polluted. The substrate, conductivity, and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors affecting the macrozoobenthos community structure indicated by the CCA analysis. Therefore, to recovery the diversity of macrozoobenthos communities and improve the ecological environment quality, sediment environment shall be improved, aquatic vegetation restored, and total nitrogen reduced.
Key words:  macrozoobenthos  Chaohu Lake  littoral zone  community structure  environmental factors  assessment
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