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引用本文:李朝,侯一筠,李水清,李健.两类典型台风路径影响下的黄、渤海海浪场特征研究.海洋与湖沼,2021,52(1):51-65.
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两类典型台风路径影响下的黄、渤海海浪场特征研究
李朝1,2, 侯一筠1,2,3,4, 李水清1,3,4, 李健1,2,5
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋环流与波动重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071;4.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋动力过程与气候功能实验室 青岛 266237;5.国家海洋局北海预报中心 青岛 266061
摘要:
台风引起的海浪灾害对我国黄、渤海沿岸影响巨大,严重威胁相关区域人民群众生命财产安全。本文主要利用ERA5(the fifth generation European Center for Medium-Range Weather forecasts atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate)风场研究了两类不同移动路径下的台风(1909号台风“利奇马”和1109号台风“梅花”)在黄、渤海区域的海浪场的时空分布特征及风-浪成长关系。结果表明:两个台风引起的海浪的有效波高空间分布明显不同,波高的分布和风速对应,而海浪周期与风速、波高的分布无明显相关性,波向较风向偏于台风移动方向且两者偏差较大;两个台风进入黄海之前就形成一个从黄海向渤海的“涌浪舌”。海浪成分方面,台风“利奇马”引起的沿海区大浪主要是风浪,而台风“梅花”移动路径的右侧以风浪为主,左侧则主要是涌浪;通过建立无因次波高与无因次周期的幂律关系、以及有效波高关于风速的二次多项式变化关系,研究了风-浪成长特性,结果发现,台风浪的成长特性与台风过程关系不明显,但与所处水域的水深和海底地形地貌有关,表现为两个台风在黄海区域的台风浪成长较渤海区域更为充分。
关键词:  ERA5  黄渤海  风速  有效波高  风浪  涌浪
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200300089
分类号:P731
基金项目:国家自然科学基金,U1706216号,41976010号,U1806227号;中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心重点部署项目,COMS2019J02号,COMS2019J05号;中国科学院战略重点项目,XDA19060202号,XDA19060502号;国家重点研究发展项目,2016YFC1402000号。
CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVE FIELD IN THE YELLOW SEA AND THE BOHAI SEA UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TWO TYPICAL TYPHOONS
LI Zhao1,2, HOU Yi-Jun1,2,3,4, LI Shui-Qing1,3,4, LI Jian1,2,5
1.Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Wave, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.Laboratory for Ocean and Climate Dynamics, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;5.North China Sea Marine Forecasting center of State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China
Abstract:
Typhoon-induced wave disasters often result in huge economic and social losses in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in China. Using ERA5 (the fifth generation European Center for Medium-Range Weather forecasts atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate) wind field data, we studied the transit characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of wave field, and established numerical wind-waves relationship during two typical typhoons (No.1909 typhoon Lekima and No.1109 typhoon Muifa) in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The results show that the spatial distribution of significant wave height caused by the two typhoons was obviously different. The distribution of wave height corresponded to the wind speed, while the distribution of wave period had no obvious correlation with the distribution of wind speed and wave height. The wave direction was more windward than the direction of typhoon movement, and the deviation between the two was large. Before the two typhoons entered the Yellow Sea, a swell tongue was formed in the Yellow Sea to the Bohai Sea. In terms of wave component, the coastal waves caused by typhoon Lekima were mainly wind waves. The major waves on the right side of the track of typhoon Muifa were wind waves, while those on the left side were swell. By establishing the power-law relationship between dimensionless wave height and dimensionless period, and the quadratic polynomial relationship between significant wave height and wind speed, the growth characteristics of wind-waves were studied. The results show that the characteristics of typhoon wave growth were not obviously related to the typhoon course, but related to the relief and the depth of the region where typhoon passed, showing that the growth of typhoon waves in the Yellow Sea was more sufficient than that in the Bohai Sea.
Key words:  ERA5  the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea  wind speed  significant wave height  wind waves  swell
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