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引用本文:王俊健,王楠,王彦涛,王孝程,李超伦.红沿河海域常见水母的食物组成分析——基于稳定同位素和脂肪酸标记法.海洋与湖沼,2021,52(1):132-143.
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红沿河海域常见水母的食物组成分析——基于稳定同位素和脂肪酸标记法
王俊健1,2, 王楠1,3,4, 王彦涛1,3,4, 王孝程5,6, 李超伦1,3,2,4
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院大学 北京 100049;3.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室 青岛 266237;4.中国科学院海洋大科学中心 青岛 266071;5.国家海洋环境监测中心 大连 116023;6.自然资源部海洋灾害预报技术重点实验室 北京 100081
摘要:
为了探究不同种类水母对浮游食物网的摄食影响,采用碳氮稳定同位素和脂肪酸标记法,研究分析了渤海红沿河海域常见的4种小型水母(伞径直径<5 cm:卡玛拉水母Malagazzia carolinae、球形侧腕水母Pleurobrachia globosa、帽铃水母Tiaricodon coeruleus、半球美螅水母Clytia hemisphaerica和3种大型水母(伞径10—200 cm:沙海蜇Nemopilema nomurai、海月水母Aurelia aurita)和白色霞水母Cyanea nozakii)的食物组成。结果表明,不同种类水母的食物组成存在差异。其中卡玛拉水母、球形侧腕水母、帽铃水母、半球美螅水母和白色霞水母均偏肉食食性,食物组成中动物性食物所占比例更高,高于海月水母与沙海蜇。在食物粒径谱上,帽铃水母和半球美螅水母较大粒径的食物比例均高于小粒径的悬浮有机物(POM)比例。卡玛拉水母和球形侧腕水母各个粒径食物比例接近。大型水母中,白色霞水母的食物中大粒径的浮游动物的比例高于海月水母,更高于沙海蜇。由此看来,小型水母和大型的白色霞水母的暴发会直接影响大中型浮游动物数量,海月水母的暴发对不同大小的浮游生物均会产生一定的影响。而沙海蜇的暴发会大量摄食<1 mm的小型浮游生物和POM,对大中型浮游动物以及更高营养层生物(鱼类等)的影响可能是通过蜇伤以及饵料竞争导致的。因此,不同种类水母暴发对浮游生物的影响存在差异。本研究从摄食角度初步探究了水母对海洋生态系统物质循环和能量流动的影响,为水母暴发的灾害防治提供了数据支持。
关键词:  水母  食物来源  脂肪酸  稳定同位素  红沿河海域
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200500135
分类号:Q178.1;Q958.885.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划,2017YFC1404401号;青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室青年人才培育项目,LMEES-YTSP-2018-01-10号;美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程专项资助,XDA23050301号;自然资源部海洋灾害预报技术重点实验室开放基金项目,LOMF1805号;国家海洋环境监测中心博士科研启动经费项目。
FOOD COMPOSITION OF COMMON JELLYFISH SPECIES IN HONGYANHE AREA REVEALED BY FATTY ACID BIOMARKERS AND STABLE CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPES
WANG Jun-Jian1,2, WANG Nan1,3,4, WANG Yan-Tao1,3,4, WANG Xiao-Cheng5,6, LI Chao-Lun1,3,2,4
1.Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;4.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;5.National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023, China;6.Key Laboratory of Marine Hazards Forecasting Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
To explore the feeding effects of different jellyfish species on plankton food webs, the food composition of 4 species of small-sized jellyfish (umbrella diameter:<5 cm:Malagazzia carolinae, Pleurobrachia globosa, Tiaricodon coeruleus, Clytia hemisphaerica) and 3 species of large-sized jellyfish (10-200 cm:Nemopilema nomurai, Aurelia aurita and Cyanea nozakii) commonly seen in the Hongyanhe coastal area of the Bohai Sea, Liaoning, China were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and fatty acid biomarkers. Results show that the food compositions of different jellyfish species were different. M. carolinae, P. globosa, T. coeruleus, C. hemisphaerica, and C. nozakii were mostly carnivorous, and the proportion of animal food in food composition was higher than A. aurita and N. nomurai. In the food particle size spectrum, T. coeruleus and C. hemisphaerica had higher proportion of finer suspended organic matter (POM). M. carolinae and P. globosa had similar proportions of food in different particle sizes. Among the large-sized jellyfish, C. nozakii had a higher proportion of large-sized zooplankton than A. aurita and N. nomurai. Therefore, the blooms of small-sized jellyfish and large-sized C. nozakii could directly affect the biomass of large- and medium-sized zooplankton, and the bloom of A. aurita would have a certain impact on plankton of different sizes. However, the bloom of N. nomurai would consume a large number of fine-grained (<1 mm) plankton and POM. The impact on large- and medium-sized zooplankton and higher trophic organisms (such as fish) might be caused by stinging and food competition. Therefore, the impact of different species of jellyfish bloom on plankton was different. By studying the effects of jellyfish on the material cycle and energy flow of marine ecosystem from the perspective of feeding, supportive data to the prevention and control of jellyfish blooms are presented in this paper.
Key words:  jellyfish  food composition  fatty acid  stable isotope  Hongyanhe area
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