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引用本文:何利军,任慧敏,许莎莎,张经.印度洋-西太平洋海洋动物谱系地理演化格局.海洋与湖沼,2021,52(2):468-486.
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印度洋-西太平洋海洋动物谱系地理演化格局
何利军1,2, 任慧敏1, 许莎莎1, 张经1
1.华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室 上海 200241;2.华东师范大学崇明生态研究院 上海 202162
摘要:
印度洋和西太平洋海域,拥有大量浅海大陆架、边缘海和岛屿,孕育了全球最丰富的初级生产力和渔业资源,尤其是作为该区域陆源物质输入、两大洋能量汇聚中心和生物多样性中心的东印度三角,在全球海洋生物分布和进化中扮演了重要角色。本文结合物理海洋和化学海洋环境,通过线粒体基因和核基因等分子标记研究结果,归纳分析了印度洋和西太平洋区域海洋动物谱系生物地理演化格局及其可能的成因。具体结果如下:(1)雷州半岛-海南岛、冰期暴露的台湾海峡和长江冲淡水等沿岸海区,阻碍了海洋动物在海区间的扩散,南海、东海和黄、渤海广布类群,多由一个星状辐射谱系组成,种群经历最近的数量扩张和区域扩散,而仅分布于南海的物种,一般具有多个深度分歧的遗传谱系,种群呈现出数量平衡状态,同一广布物种的南海和东海种群,因区域海洋环境差异,种群数量动态演化历史不同;(2)黑潮影响区的沿岸广布类群,黑潮海流促进了顺流扩散、限制了跨海流基因交流;(3)东印度三角区,存在“华莱士线”、“赫胥黎线”和“印度洋-太平洋线”等生物地理边界,该区域海洋或咸淡水溯河洄游动物多呈现为分布在生物地理边界两侧的2个遗传谱系;(4)西太平洋,存在与目前东西向大洋环流垂直的南北向跨赤道扩散和基因流现象,可能受到目前南北向随季节反转的沿岸流和深层海流影响;(5)印度洋东西海岸共享物种,受印度洋西向赤道流影响,海洋动物多由东印度洋向西印度洋跨洋扩散;(6)西印度洋广布物种/类群,呈现了两种不同种群分化格局——遗传同质均一种群和深度分化的遗传谱系;(7)东、北印度洋和南海区域共享大量物种,可能是海盆间双向扩散的结果;(8)海洋生物谱系生物地理进化史信息,可以用于地质事件、海洋环流和古气候重建。
关键词:  印度洋-西太平洋  生物多样性  谱系生物地理学  种群遗传结构  种群动力学  迁移历史
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200900260
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划,2018YFD0900904号,2018YFD0900902号;中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类),XDB42030203号;国家自然科学基金,30800117号,42090043号;上海科委“科技创新行动计划”“一带一路”国际合作项目,18230743200号;上海市自然科学基金项目,18ZR1449800号,052R14158号;崇明生态研究院“Ⅳ类高峰”自由项目资助,ECNU-IEC-201902号。
附件
PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF MARINE FAUNA IN THE INDO-WEST PACIFIC
HE Li-Jun1,2, REN Hui-Min1, XU Sha-Sha1, ZHANG Jing1
1.State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;2.Institute of Eco-Chongming, East China Normal University, Shanghai 202162, China
Abstract:
The globally highest primary productivity and fishery production have been observed in the Indo-West Pacific due to many wide continental shelves, islands, and marginal seas over there. Especially, as the centers of biodiversity terrestrial materials input and the energy fluxes between the two oceans, the East Indies Triangle played an important role in spatial distribution and evolution of global marine species. By linking physical and chemical oceanographic conditions, we summarized the phylogeographic patterns of regional marine fauna in the Indo-West Pacific based on mitochondrial and nuclear genomics. (1) In coastal China seas, the Leizhou Peninsula-Hainan Island, glacial exposed Taiwan Strait, Changjiang (Yangtze) River Plume, and old Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary acted as physical barriers and biogeographic boundaries to limit marine organisms' migration among seas. In general, widespread marine species from the South China Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea possess a single star-like clade suggesting recent population expansion, and some endemic species in the South China Sea are composed of multiple divergent clades indicating genetic equilibrium population. Furthermore, regional populations showed different population dynamic histories related to different oceanographic conditions between the South China Sea and East China Sea. (2) Along the route of the Kuroshio flowing in the Northwest Pacific Ocean, the main axis and branches of Kuroshio could have acted as biogeographical barriers to limit gene flow of coastal species among mainland China, Ryukyu Islands, main Japanese Islands, and Korean Peninsula. (3) The two clades separated by the Wallace's Line, Huxley's Line, and Indian Ocean-Pacific Ocean's Line were usually observed in marine and anadromous saltwater species from the East Indies Triangle. (4) An across-equatorial gene flow perpendicular to present ocean surface currents was observed in different marine species between the northwest Pacific and southwest Pacific due to north-flowing subsurface current and seasonal reversal of coastal surface current. (5) Some species shared by the East Indian Ocean and West Indian Ocean originated generally from the East Indian Ocean and migrated to West Indian Ocean through transoceanic dispersal carried by the west flowing South Equatorial Current. (6) Two different patterns of genetic structure, viz. genetic homogeneous (stochasticly mixed) population and deeply divergent populations/lineages were often observed in different species from the West Indian Ocean. (7) Bidirectional gene flow could be responsible for shared marine species between the South China Sea and northeastern Indian Ocean. (8) Some evolutional signals of ancient geologic events, palaeo-oceanographic conditions and climatic events can be implicated by phylogeographic histories of different marine species due to co-evolution among them.
Key words:  Indo-West Pacific  biodiversity  phylogeography  genetic structure  population dynamics  colonization history
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