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引用本文:刘静,肖永双.印太交汇区海洋鱼类多样性格局与演化研究进展.海洋与湖沼,2021,52(2):498-507.
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印太交汇区海洋鱼类多样性格局与演化研究进展
刘静1,2, 肖永双1,2
1.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院海洋研究所 青岛 266071
摘要:
印太交汇区不仅是热带物理海洋海气能量汇聚中心、地质板块活跃中心以及生物多样性中心,而且也是用于开展地球系统物质能量交换与全球气候变化以及海洋生物多样性起源研究的理想靶区,因此一直受到世界科学家们的广泛关注。作为全球34个生物多样性热点区域之一,印太交汇区的珊瑚礁三角区孕育了全球76%的造礁珊瑚、75%的红树林、50%的珊瑚礁鱼类和45%的海草物种数。鱼类是珊瑚礁生态系统中最重要的组成部分之一,在整个印度-太平洋海域中珊瑚礁群落的组成和维持中起到重要作用。过去,生物学家们围绕热带珊瑚礁鱼类多样性格局与演化做了大量工作,提出了许多生物地理学假说模型,如中心物种形成模型、汇聚中心模型、重叠中心模型和华莱氏线假说等,这些假说在一些珊瑚礁鱼类类群得到验证。但是,相对于印太交汇区的热带珊瑚礁鱼类多样性研究,深海的鱼类区系和生物多样性研究起步较晚,仍缺乏时间序列的观测数据和系统研究。目前对于印太交汇区深海与浅海生物多样性中心形成演化机制以及深浅海生物之间的源汇关系认知方面仍存在分歧。本文梳理了过去国内外学者在印太交汇区鱼类多样性方面的研究工作,综述了该地区浅海热带珊瑚礁和深海鱼类多样性格局演化研究最新进展,提出在深海极端环境和生命过程研究对策,以期为探讨印太交汇区海洋生物多样性中心形成演化过程及证实/证伪各种生物地理学假说提出科学论据,并为战略生物资源开发利用提供新视角。
关键词:  印太交汇区  珊瑚礁三角区  鱼类  生物多样性  分布格局  演化
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20200900246
分类号:Q178.53;Q951;S932.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目,31872195号;中国科学院战略性科技先导专项,XDB42000000号;中国科学院国际合作局国际伙伴计划资助项目,GJHZ2039号。
附件
PROGRESS IN FISH DIVERSITY PATTERN AND EVOLUTION IN THE INDO-PACIFIC CONVERGENCE REGION
LIU Jing1,2, XIAO Yong-Shuang1,2
1.Center for Ocean Mege-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
The Indo-Pacific Convergence Region is not only the center of sea-air energy convergence, tectonic movement, and biodiversity in the tropical ocean, but also an ideal area for studying the exchange of material and energy in the earth system, global climate change, and origin of marine biodiversity. Therefore, it has been widely concerned by scientists all over the world. Specifically, as one of the 34 global richest biodiversity hotspots and a relatively small part of the Indo-Pacific Convergence Region, the Coral Triangle harbors about 76% reef-building coral species, 75% mangrove species, 50% coral reef fish species and 45% seaweed species of the world. Among them, fishes are one of the most important group and play a major role in the assemblage and maintenance of coral reef communities throughout the Indo-Pacific Convergence Region. In the past, biologists have done great works on fish diversity pattern and evolution of tropical coral reef in the shallow marine ecosystem. Several hypotheses, including the Center of Speciation Model, the Center of Accumulation Model, the Center of Overlap Model, the Wallace's Line Hypothesis, etc., have been verified in some fish groups in the Coral Triangle. However, compared with the researches on fish diversity of tropical coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific Convergence Region, studies on deep-sea waters started relatively late, and there is still a lack of long-time observation data and systematic research. At present, there are still controversies in the respects of mechanisms of formation and evolution of marine biodiversity centers and the source and pool between the marine organisms from tropical shallow water and deep-sea water. We summarized the latest research progresses on the origin and evolution of fish diversity in both tropical coral reef and deep-sea water, and proposed the future development strategies for the research on the deep-sea extreme environments and life processes, in order to explore the processes of the formation and evolution of biodiversity center in the Indo-Pacific Convergence Region and to provide scientific evidence to substantiate/disprove various biogeographic hypotheses and a new perspective for the development and utilization of strategic biological resources.
Key words:  Indo-Pacific Convergence Region  Coral Triangle  fishes  biodiversity  distribution pattern  evolution
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