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引用本文:叶文婷,蒋宏雷,江柳,刘哲宇,李有志,王志铮.大黄鱼(Larimichthys crocea)幼鱼同生群内不同增重性能子群间的脏器生理差异.海洋与湖沼,2024,55(1):223-231.
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大黄鱼(Larimichthys crocea)幼鱼同生群内不同增重性能子群间的脏器生理差异
叶文婷1, 蒋宏雷2, 江柳1, 刘哲宇1, 李有志1, 王志铮1
1.浙江海洋大学水产学院 浙江舟山 316022;2.宁波市海洋与渔业研究院 浙江宁波 315103
摘要:
探究引起大黄鱼幼鱼同生群内不同增重性能子群间脏器生理差异的主因, 揭示造成各子群间生存适应对策和增重机制分化的内在逻辑, 对于精选大黄鱼幼鱼优质增殖放流群体和指导大黄鱼科学高效养殖具重要现实意义。随机捞取宁波市象山西沪港海域内经板式网箱养殖3个月的3 000尾大黄鱼同生群幼鱼, 停食2d后按体质量由大到小依次分为A [体质量(3.45±0.43) g, 出现率5%]、B [体质量(2.60±0.18) g, 出现率20%]、C [体质量(2.00±0.21) g, 出现率50%]、D [体质量(1.22±0.23) g, 出现率20%]、E [体质量(0.74±0.04) g, 出现率5%]等5个子群。在测量并统计脏器比例性状(鳃系数、内脏系数、内脏净重比、鳃净重比和鳃脏比)的基础上, 较系统开展了不同增重性能子群间耗氧率、窒息点、内脏和鳃组织相关功能酶活力的差异。结果表明: (1) 鳃系数、内脏系数和日均耗氧率的显著高企(P<0.05)均可导致大黄鱼幼鱼增重性能的明显下降; (2) 耗氧昼夜节律的分化是引起大黄鱼幼鱼增重性能发生明显改变的主因, 具体表现为A、B子群的昼均耗氧率显著大于夜均耗氧率(P<0.05),以及E子群的日均耗氧率与昼均和夜均耗氧率均无显著差异(P>0.05); (3) 耗氧率性状聚类和脏器比例性状聚类分别对甄别C、E子群具良好的辨识效果; (4) 随着窒息点水中含氧量的趋势性提高, 大黄鱼幼鱼的增重性能将表露出极明显的减弱效应, 其中与E子群窒息点水中含氧量具显著差异(P<0.05)的仅为A、B子群, 呈E>A≈B; (5) 内脏消化酶和磷酸酶中, 酶活力与大黄鱼幼鱼增重性能排序吻合度最高的分别为淀粉酶和AKP,前者随增重性能增强呈趋势性增加,后者则呈A<B<C<D<E (P<0.05); ATP酶中, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase酶活力无组间差异(P>0.05), Na+/K+-ATPase酶活力除A显著大于D、E子群(P<0.05)外, 其余子群间均无显著差异(P>0.05); (6) 鳃SOD、CAT和POD中, 酶活力与大黄鱼幼鱼增重性能排序吻合度最高的为SOD, 呈A>B>C≈D≈E, Na+/K+-ATPase和Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase酶活力均呈A>B≈C>D≈E。上述研究可为大黄鱼生长性能评价体系构建和指导速生品种(品系)选择育种提供科学依据。
关键词:  大黄鱼幼鱼    内脏  增重性能  耗氧率  窒息点  酶活力
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20230600134
分类号:Q789;S965;Q954
基金项目:宁波市重大科技任务攻关项目,2022Z183号;国家公益海洋专项,201405029号;宁波市本级增殖放流技术指导和效果评价,2015-2022;象山港海洋牧场示范区五期建设项目环境监测及功效调查评估,2017-2018。
附件
PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ORGANS OF DIFFERENT GROWTH PERFORMANCE SUBGROUPS WITHIN THE SAME COHORT OF LARGE YELLOW CROAKER (LARIMICHTHYS CROCEA) JUVENILES
YE Wen-Ting1, JIANG Hong-Lei2, JIANG Liu1, LIU Zhe-Yu1, LI You-Zhi1, WANG Zhi-Zheng1
1.College of Fisheries, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China;2.Ningbo Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Ningbo 315103, China
Abstract:
Investigating the primary causes of physiological differences in the organs among subgroups with different growth performance within the same cohort of large yellow croaker juveniles can reveal the underlying logic of survival adaptation strategies and differentiation in weight gain mechanisms. This has great practical significance for the selection of high-quality breeding and release groups of large yellow croaker juveniles, and it guides more scientific and efficient aquaculture practices for large yellow croaker. 3 000 large yellow croaker juveniles, which were cultured in cage nets for 3 months, were randomly caught from the Xiangshan Xihu Harbor area in Ningbo City. After fasting for 2 days, they were divided into five subgroups (A, B, C, D, E) based on body weight from largest to smallest. The subgroups had the following characteristics: A [body weight (3.45±0.43) g, occurrence rate 5%], B [body weight (2.60±0.18) g, occurrence rate 20%], C [body weight (2.00±0.21) g, occurrence rate 50%], D [body weight (3.45±0.23) g, occurrence rate 20%], E[body weight (0.74±0.04) g, occurrence rate 5%]. A systematic study was conducted on the differences in oxygen consumption rate, asphyxiation point, and activities of enzymes related to visceral and gill tissue functions among different growth performance subgroups, based on the measurement and statistical analysis of organ proportion traits, including the gill coefficient, viscus coefficient, gill-viscus ratio, gill net weight ratio, and viscus net weight ratio. The study found: (1) Significantly high values of gill coefficient, viscus coefficient, and average daily oxygen consumption rate (P<0.05) can lead to a significant decline in growth performance of large yellow croaker juveniles; (2) Differentiation in diurnal rhythm of oxygen consumption is the main cause for significant changes in growth performance, specifically, subgroups A and B had significantly higher average daytime oxygen consumption rates than average nighttime rates (P<0.05), while subgroup E had no significant difference between average daily, daytime, and nighttime oxygen consumption rates (P<0.05); (3) Clustering of oxygen consumption rate and organ proportion traits proved effective in identifying subgroups C and E; (4) As the oxygen content in the water at the asphyxiation point increases, the growth performance of large yellow croaker juveniles will show a very obvious weakening effect, with only subgroups A and B showing significant differences in oxygen content in the water at the asphyxiation point compared to subgroup E (P<0.05), and the trend being E>A≈B; (5) Among the digestive enzymes in the viscera and phosphatases, the enzyme activities most in line with the order of growth performance of large yellow croaker juveniles were amylase and AKP, with the former showing a trend of increase with enhanced growth performance, and the latter showing A<B<C<D<E (P<0.05); among ATPases, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase enzyme activity showed no significant differences between groups (P>0.05), while Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity was significantly higher in subgroup A compared to subgroups D and E (P<0.05), with no significant differences among other subgroups (P>0.05); (6) Among gill SOD, CAT, and POD, the enzyme activities most in line with the order of growth performance of large yellow croaker juveniles were SOD, which showed A>B>C≈D≈E, and Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase enzyme activities both showed A>B≈C>D≈E. This research can provide a scientific basis for the construction of a large yellow croaker growth performance evaluation system and inform the selection and breeding of fast-growing strains.
Key words:  large yellow croaker juveniles  gill  viscera  growth performance  oxygen consumption rate  asphyxiation point  enzyme activity
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