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盐度对瘤背石磺幼贝存活、生长性能和肌肉生化成分的影响
陈 威1,2, 沈永龙3, 黄金田1, 李 强1, 张明明1
1.盐城工学院 江苏省滩涂底栖生物重点实验室;2.盐城天邦饲料科技有限公司;3.盐城市海洋与渔业局
摘要:
为探讨盐度对瘤背石磺(Onchidium struma)幼贝生长和肌肉生化成分的影响, 用不同盐度水平( 5、15、25、35 和45)的人工海水饲养瘤背石磺幼贝[干质量(2.96 ± 1.02) g] 60 d后测定瘤背石磺生长性能和肌肉营养成分。结果显示: (1)瘤背石磺在盐度25~45时生长良好, 成活率在90%以上。同时, 在盐度25时增重率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率均显著高于其余各盐度组(P<0.05), 而饲料系数也显著降低(P<0.05)。(2)随着盐度的升高, 瘤背石磺肌肉水分显著降低(P<0.05), 粗灰分呈先下降后上升趋势,但对肌肉钙和磷含量影响差异不显著(P>0.05); 粗蛋白含量在盐度25时最高, 为76.66%, 而粗脂肪在高盐度时呈显著上升趋势(P<0.05), 分别在盐度25和45时含量最低和最高。(3)除了谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸和脯氨酸等呈味氨基酸受盐度影响差异显著外, 大多数氨基酸均随着盐度升高呈现先上升后下降的趋势, 且在盐度25最高, 但差异不显著。(4)盐度对于每一种脂肪酸的影响均差异显著, 在盐度5至35范围内, n-3 PUFA和n-6 PUFA均呈现上升趋势, 但n-3 PUFA/ n-6 PUFA值也逐渐升高。与大多数海水贝类不同的是, 瘤背石磺DHA含量远低于EPA。试验结果表明, 盐度对瘤背石磺生长性能以及肌肉生化成分有显著影响, 适宜的盐度可改善瘤背石磺的肌肉品质和风味。
关键词:  瘤背石磺(Onchidium struma)  盐度  生长性能  肌肉成分
DOI:10.11759/hykx20140110001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目 (31470130)
Effects of salinity on survival, growth performance, and biochemical composition of muscle in juvenile Onchidium struma
CHEN Wei,SHEN Yong-long,HUANG Jin-tian,LI Qiang,ZHANG Ming-ming
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of salinity on growth and the biochemical components of muscle in juvenile Onchidium struma, in this study, we cultured individuals [wet weight (2.96 ± 1.02) g] with artificial seawater at different salinity levels (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45) for 60 days, and then determined the growth performance and nutritional composition of the muscle. The results indicate that: (1) O. struma grows well in a salinity range of 25–45, with a survival rate over 90%. The rate of weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio at a salinity of 25 was significantly higher than those at other salinity levels (P < 0.05) and the feed conversion ratio was also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). (2) With an increase in salinity, the muscle moisture of O. struma decreased significantly (P < 0.05), crude ash showed an increasing trend after an initial decrease, and the effect on muscle of the calcium and phosphorus content was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The crude protein content was highest at a salinity of 25, or 76.66%, and the crude fat content increased significantly in high salinity (P < 0.05) and had the lowest and highest at salinity levels of 25 and 45, respectively. (3) Most amino acids showed a decreasing trend after an initial increase with an increase in salinity. We observed the highest level at a salinity of 25, although the difference was not significant. The amino acid flavor of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and proline were significantly affected by salinity. (4) The effect of salinity on every type of fatty acid was significantly different, and the n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA increased over a salinity range of 5 to 35, whereas the n-3 PUFA/ n-6 PUFA values gradually increased. Unlike most seawater shellfish, the DHA content of O. struma is far lower than the EPA content. These test results indicate that salinity has a significant effect on O. struma growth performance and the biochemical composition of muscle, and that the appropriate salinity level can improve O. struma muscle quality and flavor.
Key words:  Onchidium struma  salinity  growth performance  muscle composition
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