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背角无齿蚌(Anodonta woodiana)对池塘底泥释放营养盐的净化效果
陈修报, 刘洪波, 苏彦平, 戈贤平, 杨 健
中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 中国水产科学研究院长江中下游渔业生态环境评价和资源养护重点实验室
摘要:
为了阐释鱼、蚌生态混养的可行性, 通过建立微型生态系统, 探索不同养殖密度和处理时间的背角无齿蚌(Anodonta woodiana)对池塘底泥释放营养盐的净化效果。结果表明: 背角无齿蚌对pH、DO和总固溶物的影响总体不明显, 但能够显著降低浊度和Chl-a含量(P<0.05), 最大去除率分别为79.2%和83.4%; 背角无齿蚌对营养盐的净化效果受到处理时间、养殖密度的显著影响(P<0.05); TN、NO3--N和NO2--N呈现升高的趋势, 而能够显著降低NH4+-N、TP和PO43-的含量(P<0.05), 最大去除率分别为90.9%、55.6%和52.9%。响应面优化分析显示蚌养殖密度和处理时间的配比分别为27个/m3和22.63 d、25个/m3和23.69 d时, 对TP和PO43-的去除率可进一步提升至68.9%和58.1%。本研究表明背角无齿蚌有潜力用于养殖池塘底泥富营养化的防控。
关键词:  背角无齿蚌  底泥  营养盐  净化
DOI:10.11759/hykx20170716001
分类号:
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系大宗淡水鱼产业技术体系专项(CARS-46); 江苏省自然科学基金(BK20161144); 国家自然科学基金项目(31502166)
Purification capacity of Anodonta woodiana on nutrients released from pond sediment
CHEN Xiu-bao, LIU Hong-bo, SU Yan-ping, GE Xian-ping, YANG Jian
Abstract:
Microcosm experiments were conducted to determinate the purification capacity of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana on nutrients released from pond sediment, and to study the effect of mussel systems by different density and treatment time. No significant effect was observed on pH, DO, and total solid solution. Significantly reduced levels were found on turbidity and Chl-a (P < 0.05), and the maximum removal efficiencies for them were 79.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The purifying effect of A. woodiana on nutrients was significantly affected by culture density and treatment time (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen, NO3--N, and NO2--N showed increased levels. In contrast, the levels of NH4+-N, TP, and PO43- were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The maximum removal efficiencies for NH4+-N, TP, and PO43- were 90.9%, 55.6%, and 52.9% respectively. Furthermore, analysis of response optimization showed that the removal efficiencies for TP and PO43- could possibly be elevated to 68.9% and 58.1% respectively, if the mussel systems are assigned at density-time of 27 ind./m3-22.63 d and 25 ind./m3-23.69 d. The present study suggests that A. woodiana can be effectively utilized in a purification approach for sediment eutrophication.
Key words:  Anodonta woodiana  sediment  nutrients  purification
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