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针对事件链的溢油监测需求分析及组网观测方案初探
靳熙芳1,2, 万剑华1, 黄 娟2, 李晓敏3, 杨 敏4, 丁 一1
1.中国石油大学(华东);2.国家海洋局北海预报中心;3.国家海洋局第一海洋研究所;4.国家海洋局北海海洋技术保障中心
摘要:
本文针对普遍关注的溢油事件, 分析了重大溢油事件应急监测中迫切需要解决的七个问题: 溢油源确认核查、溢油面积准确估算、水下溢油探查、针对溢油应急过程的海洋环境监测、针对重点海域的溢油凝视监测、服务于溢油事件过程的次生事件风险观测; 总结了溢油监测传感器的技术特点,分析了卫星、航空、固定式观测平台、移动式观测平台、水下固定和移动观测平台等5 类溢油观测平台的技术现状与不足, 提出了溢油跨学科组网观测构想, 并初步设计了观测网络的组成及运行模式,以期对溢油组网观测系统的建设有所推动。
关键词:  溢油  事件链  监测需求  组网观测
DOI:10.11759/hykx20171011003
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1405303, 2017YFC1405000)
Analysis of oil-spill monitoring requirements and network observation scheme for event chain
JIN Xi-fang,WAN Jian-hua,HUANG Juan,LI Xiao-min,YANG Min,DING Yi
Abstract:
To address the widespread concern regarding oil-spill events, we analyzed seven problems in need of urgent resolution in oil-spill emergency monitoring: identification of the oil-spill source, accurate assessment of the quantity of the oil spill, detection of underwater oil spills, marine environmental monitoring during the oil-spill emergency process, the initiation of oil-spill monitoring in key sea areas, and secondary-event risk analysis for oil-spill events. In this paper, we summarize the technical characteristics of oil-spill monitoring sensors and analyze the current technical status and shortages associated with five detection methods, including satellite remote sensing, aerial remote sensing, offshore fixed-platform observation, underwater fixed–platform observation, and mobile-platform observation. Lastly, we propose the establishment of an interdisciplinary oil-spill observation network and provide a design regarding its composition and operational mode to promote its establishment.
Key words:  oil spill  event chain  monitoring requirement  networking observation
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