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1992年以来盐城滨海湿地植被动态变化研究
张佳佳, 沈永明
南京师范大学 地理科学学院
摘要:
基于1992~2016年4个时相的遥感数据, 对盐城滨海川东港至梁垛河口岸段进行景观分类, 分析湿地植被类型及分布, 借助转移矩阵法探究滨海湿地植被的时空演变。结果表明: 茅草、芦苇、碱蓬, 米草为川东港至梁垛河口段主要湿地植被类型。1992~2016年植被总面积减少, 其中茅草几近消失殆尽; 芦苇、碱蓬面积持续缩减; 米草面积大幅增长。1992~2000年植被面积快速缩减, 大面积的茅草碱蓬地被开发为耕地; 2000~2009年养殖塘侵占湿地植被, 规模剧增。2009~2016年, 米草向海方向扩张的同时靠陆侧转变为养殖塘。川东港至梁垛河口的植被演变是自然和人为共同作用的结果。一方面受淤积型海岸影响, 另一方面受政策引导下的各类滩涂开发活动, 及互花米草的引种所带来的快速扩散的影响。本文研究结果为盐城滨海湿地管理与可持续发展提供理论参考。
关键词:  植被变化  滨海湿地  转移矩阵  盐城
DOI:10.11759/hykx20180121001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(U1609203)
Dynamic changes of coastal wetland vegetation in Yancheng
ZHANG Jia-jia, SHEN Yong-ming
Abstract:
The results of this study indicated the following: (1) The major wetland vegetation types in the estuary from the Chuandong Harbor to the Liangduo River mouth are couch grass, Artemisia halodendron, Phragmites australis, and Spartina alterniflora. The total area of vegetation decreased from 1992 to 2016, of which couch grass almost disappeared. The area comprising A. halodendron and P. australis continued to decrease, whereas the area comprising S. alterniflora increased sharply. (2) The area of vegetation was rapidly reduced from 1992 to 2000. Large areas comprising couch grass and A. halodendron were developed into cultivated lands. From 2000 to 2009, aquaculture ponds occupied wetland vegetation, and the scale of vegetation showed a rapid increase. During 2009–2016, although the area comprising S. alterniflora was expanding into the sea, it converted into a breeding pond on the land side. (3) The evolution of vegetation from the Chuandong Harbor to the Liangduo River mouth was influenced by natural and man-made interactions. On the one hand, it was affected by coastal silting, whereas on the other hand, policy-led development of various types of tidal flats and the rapid spread caused by the introduction of S. alterniflora influenced the evolution of vegetation.
Key words:  vegetation evolution  coastal wetlands  transfer matrix  Yancheng
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