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化学消油剂对原油乳化及微生物降解的影响
皮永蕊1, 唐永政1, 王爱敏1, 吕永红1, 刘红梅2, 高丽1
1.烟台大学;2.烟台大学 海洋学院
摘要:
化学消油剂的使用已成为国内外海洋溢油事故应急处理的重要措施之一。本文分别从光明化学消油剂GM-8的用量、油水比及环境pH等方面,对正十四烷及原油乳化效果进行分析。结果表明,GM-8对正十四烷及原油的乳化效果较好, 当化学消油剂的用量为原油的5%时,正十四烷及原油的乳化指数较高。在消油剂与原油用量比为一定值时,原油的乳化效果与海水的量几乎没有关系。环境pH对GM-8乳化原油的影响不大,乳化后的原油可以在海洋环境中稳定7天以上。GM-8对原油的微生物降解有一定的增强作用。N/P、环境的pH以及微生物的接种量等均对乳化原油的生物降解有较大的影响。当微生物的接种量由培养基的1%增加到10%时,乳化原油的微生物降解率增加了一倍以上,达到91.6%。
关键词:  化学消油剂  原油  正十四烷  乳化  微生物降解
DOI:
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基金项目:
The Effect of Chemical Dispersant on Emulsification and Microbial Degradation of Crude Oil
Pi Yongrui,Tang Yongzheng,Wang AImin,Lv Yonghong,Liu Hongmei,Gao Li
Yantai University
Abstract:
Dispersants are commonly employed in emergency response to marine oil spills to promote the dissolution of oil into water and reduce the transport of hydrocarbon to shoreline ecosystems. In this paper, the emulsification effect of n-tetradecane and crude oil was analyzed from the aspects of Guangming chemical dispersant GM-8 dosage, oil-water ratio and environmental pH. The results show that GM-8 has excellent emulsification ability on crude oil. When the amount of GM-8 is 5% of crude oil, the emulsification index of crude oil is higher. When the amount of GM-8 and crude oil is a certain value, the emulsification index had a negligible effect on the amount of seawater. The emulsified crude oil almost unaffected by environmental pH, and could form a stable emulsion in the seawater. GM-8 could enhance the microbial degradation of the emulsified crude oil. N/P, the pH of the environment, and the quantity of inoculation of the microorganisms all have a great influence on the biodegradation of the emulsified crude oil. The biodegradation removal percentage of the emulsified crude oil was doubled, peaking at 91.6%, when the microbial inoculum increased from 1% to 10% of the medium volume.
Key words:  chemical dispersant  n-tetradecane  crude oil  emulsification  biodegradation
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