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引用本文:郭子良,张曼胤.中国国家级海洋特别保护区建设现状及其干扰压力分析[J].海洋科学,2019,43(12):110-117.
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中国国家级海洋特别保护区建设现状及其干扰压力分析
郭子良1,2, 张曼胤1,2
1.中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京 100091;2.河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 河北 衡水 053000
摘要:
为了滨海湿地的资源及环境可持续发展,沿海地区已经建立了众多的海洋特别保护区。本文通过GIS10.0、聚集度指数和景观发展指数等对中国国家级海洋特别保护区的建设、地理分布格局和干扰压力等进行了分析。结果表明,2005-2017年是中国国家级海洋特别保护区的重要建设期。截止2017年底国家级海洋特别保护区已有67处,形成了以国家级海洋公园为主体的管理体系。国家级海洋特别保护区在中国沿海地区广泛建设布局,但主要分布在山东、浙江和辽宁;并在地理空间上高度聚集分布,聚集度指数为0.43。中国南方沿海省区海洋特别保护区建设数量较少,其对海岸线覆盖率较低。国家级海洋特别保护区及其周边灯光指数(2005—2013年)和景观发展指数(2005—2015年)持续增长,人为干扰压力增强。但海洋特别保护区的设立一定程度上减弱了其内部干扰压力的增强速度,可能加剧了其边缘的人类活动和景观发展压力。
关键词:  海洋特别保护区  建设现状  分布格局  干扰压力
DOI:10.11759/hykx20190330001
分类号:X3
基金项目:中国林科院基本科研业务费专项(CAFYBB2017 SY044)
Analysis of the disturbance pressure and construction of national special marine reserves in China
GUO Zi-liang1,2, ZHANG Man-yin1,2
1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Wetland Services and Restoration, Institute of Wetland Research, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China;2.National Ecosystem Research Station of Hengshui Wetland, Hengshui, Hebei 053000, China
Abstract:
For the sustainable development of coastal wetland resources and the environment, China has established many special marine reserves. In this paper, we analyzed the status quo, geographical distribution pattern, and pressure interference of national special marine reserves in China, using GIS10.0, the unevenness indexes, the landscape development index, etc. According to the results of this study, 2005 to 2017 was an important construction period for national special marine reserves in China. Moreover, by 2017, 67 national special marine reserves had been established in China, forming a management system with national marine parks as the main body. National special marine reserves had been widely constructed in the coastal areas but were mainly located in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Liaoning. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of national special marine reserves was highly concentrated, with an unevenness index of 0.43. In addition, there were few special marine reserves in southern coastal provinces of China, resulting in a low coverage rate of special marine reserves on these coastlines. Moreover, the light indexes (2005-2013) and landscape development indexes (2005-2015) in and around national special marine reserves continued to increase, thereby increasing the pressure of human disturbance. Although the establishment of these special marine reserves, to some extent, reduced the rate of increase of internal disturbance pressure, it could increase the pressure of human activities and landscape development on the edge of special marine reserves.
Key words:  special marine reserve  construction status  distribution pattern  disturbance pressure
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