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引用本文:任剑波,何青,沈健,徐凡,郭磊城,谢卫明,朱磊.远区台风“三巴”对长江口波浪动力场的作用机制[J].海洋科学,2020,44(5):12-23.
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远区台风“三巴”对长江口波浪动力场的作用机制
任剑波1,2, 何青1, 沈健3, 徐凡1, 郭磊城1, 谢卫明1, 朱磊4
1.华东师范大学 河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200241;2.杭州绍逸环境技术有限公司, 浙江 杭州 310007;3.美国威廉玛丽学院 弗吉尼亚海洋研究所, 美国 弗吉尼亚州 23062;4.中山大学 海洋科学学院, 广东 广州 510275
摘要:
针对远区台风对河口波浪动力场的影响问题,利用第三代波浪模式SWAN计算了远区台风"三巴"期间长江口波浪动力场分布,分析了陆架至河口区的波浪能量耗散和波致泥沙侵蚀的时空分布,发现波浪由外海向近岸传播过程中,波-波相互作用导致能量由高频向低频转换,周期和波长逐渐增大,近底层轨道流速增大,能量密度增高;阐明白帽破碎是维持深水区波浪能量平衡和限制波高成长的主要机制,底摩擦耗能和水深诱导的破碎耗能是长江口横沙东滩和崇明东滩邻近海域波高衰减的主要原因;提出波浪产生的底部切应力与相对水深有关,当波浪传播到浅水区时,波长和周期越大,波浪切应力越大。研究揭示了与河口相距数百公里的远区台风能够对长江口波浪动力场产生明显影响,河口水下三角洲前缘是最容易受到波浪侵蚀的区域,研究成果弥补了目前关于陆架远区台风对河口波浪动力场影响研究的不足,对深化认识远区台风对长江口动力环境、地貌演变、航运安全和滩涂保护等有重要科学意义。
关键词:  远区台风  长江口  波浪切应力  波浪侵蚀
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200118001
分类号:P731.22
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51739005);科技部项目(2016YFE0133700);上海市科委重点基金项目(18DZ1204802,18DZ1206400,19230711900)
The effect mechanism of a remote typhoon “Sanba” on wave dynamics in the Changjiang Estuary
REN Jian-bo1,2, HE Qing1, SHEN Jian3, XU Fan1, GUO Lei-cheng1, XIE Wei-ming1, ZHU Lei4
1.State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;2.Hangzhou Shaoyi Environmental Technology Co., Ltd, Hangzhou 310007, China;3.Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, Williamsburg, VA 23062, USA;4.School of Marine Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Abstract:
The third-generation wave model SWAN was conducted to simulate the wave dynamics in the Changjiang Estuary (CJE) during the remote typhoon "Sanba". Based on the simulated results, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distributions of wave energy dissipation and wave-induce sediment erosion, and found that wave periods and wave lengths increased correlated with larger orbital velocities and higher energy densities due to energy shifts from high frequency to low frequency when wave propagated from open seas to the coastal area. Our results indicated that the whitecapping dissipation controlled the wave growth and dominated wave energy balance in deep water. Bottom frictions and depth-induced dissipations were found to be main determinants for the decrease in wave height of shallow waters in the CJE. This study suggested wave-induced shear stresses correlated to water depths and wave shear stresses increased when wave periods and wave lengths increased. The results revealed that a remote typhoon could have a significant effect on wave dynamics in the CJE and the submerged delta front was more sensitive to be eroded by waves. This study guaranteed a better understanding of the roles that remote typhoons played on wave dynamics, hydrodynamics, and geomorphic evolution, which were very important to navigation safety and coastal wetland protection in the CJE.
Key words:  remote typhoon  the Changjiang Estuary  wave-induced shear stress  wave-induced sediment erosion
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