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引用本文:任兆鹏,李昊倩,鞠霞,王国清.青岛地区海雾分布及大气边界层条件分析[J].海洋科学,2020,44(5):96-106.
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青岛地区海雾分布及大气边界层条件分析
任兆鹏1,2, 李昊倩3, 鞠霞4, 王国清5
1.青岛市气象局, 山东 青岛 266003;2.青岛市气象灾害防御工程技术研究中心, 山东 青岛 266003;3.自然资源部 北海预报中心, 山东 青岛 266061;4.自然资源部 第一海洋研究所, 山东 青岛 266061;5.平度市气象局, 山东 平度 266700
摘要:
青岛地区海雾多发,观测表明海雾对沿海地区影响范围不尽相同,特别是海雾影响内陆的机理尚缺乏研究。本文利用观测资料及数值模式统计了青岛地区4月-7月海雾分布特征,并对不同影响范围海雾典型个例进行对比分析,结果表明:海雾发生日数自沿海向内陆递减。胶州湾沿岸雾日数比黄海沿岸明显减少,胶州湾东北部的雾日数要少于胶州湾西北部。海雾多发生于高空形势稳定,低层偏南流场的天气条件下。大气边界层内逆温层的的范围大致影响着海雾的分布。只影响沿海的海雾,地面为偏南风,风速在3~8 m/s之间,内陆风力减弱不明显。500 m以下大气边界层内风速切变大。湍流作用使海雾向内陆推进过程中倾斜抬升为低云,地面雾区减弱。能够影响内陆地区的海雾,多出现在地面风力较弱的情况之下,大部分在1~3 m/s之间。500 m以下大气边界层内风速切变小,大气边界层内湍流强度不强,使沿海到内陆的逆温层能够始终维持,沿海海雾在弱南风影响下延伸影响内陆地区。
关键词:  海雾分布  数值模拟  大气边界层  逆温层
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200105002
分类号:P732.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(NSFC41576108);青岛市气象局青年科研专项(2016qdqxq8);环渤海区域科技协同创新基金项目(QYXM201801)
Distribution of sea fog and analysis of boundary layer conditions in Qingdao
REN Zhao-peng1,2, LI Hao-qian3, JU Xia4, WANG Guo-qing5
1.Qingdao Meteorological Bureau, Qingdao 266003, China;2.Qingdao Engineering Technology Research Center for Meteorological Disaster Prevention, Qingdao 266003, China;3.North China Sea Marine Forecasting Center, MNR, Qingdao 266061, China;4.First Institute of Oceanography, MNR, Qingdao 266061, China;5.Pingdu Meteorological Bureau, Pingdu 266700, China
Abstract:
Sea fog often occurs in the Qingdao area. The observation shows that the influences of sea fog on coastal areas are not the same, and studies on the mechanism of sea fog on inland areas are still lacking. Based on observation data and numerical simulation, the distribution characteristics of sea fog in Qingdao from April to July are analyzed, and typical sea fog cases with different influence ranges are compared. The results show that the sea fog days decrease from the coastal to inland areas. The foggy days along the coast of the Jiaozhou Bay are fewer than those along the Yellow Sea, and the foggy days in the northeast of the Jiaozhou Bay are fewer than those in the northwest. The sea fog mostly occurs under weather conditions possessing high-level winds and low-level southerly winds. The range of the inversion layer in the planetary boundary layer controls the sea fog distribution. For the sea fog cases that only affect the coast, the wind direction is southerly and between 3 and 8 m/s, and the inland wind is not significantly weakened. The wind shear is strong in the boundary layer below 500 m. Turbulence makes the sea fog incline and rise to low clouds in the process of advancing inland, and the fog on the ground is weakened. The sea fog that can affect the inland area mostly occurs in the case of weak ground wind, most of which is between 1 and 3 m/s. The wind shear in the boundary layer below 500 m is weak, and the turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer is not strong, so that the inversion layer from the coastal to inland areas can be maintained at all times, and the coastal sea fog extends to affect the inland area under the influence of weak southerly winds.
Key words:  distribution of sea fog  numerical simulation  planetary boundary layer  inversion layer
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