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引用本文:张辉,线薇薇.环境DNA技术在生态保护和监测中的应用[J].海洋科学,2020,44(7):96-102.
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环境DNA技术在生态保护和监测中的应用
张辉1,2,3, 线薇薇1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071
摘要:
生物多样性减少、生态系统功能退化、全球气候变化是全球性重大问题,在避免对当前生态环境再破坏的前提下,开展全面准确的生态监测来查清和明确生物多样性,对生态保护和可持续利用极其重要。环境DNA技术(eDNA)的发展提供了一种生态和生物多样性监测的新手段,是近年来的前沿热点技术之一。国际上已经将其广泛应用于生态监测中,而我国的相关研究成果,尤其是在海洋生态监测中的研究成果则相对缺乏。本文综述了eDNA技术的发展和国内外基于eDNA技术取得的相关成果,主要从eDNA技术与传统监测方法的互补性、基于eDNA技术监测物种生活史过程、基于eDNA技术推算物种丰度、基于eDNA技术研究生态系统结构变化等几个主要方面进行了介绍;阐释了eDNA技术应用的研究领域和方向;揭示了eDNA技术在生态监测中的适用性和重要性;指出了eDNA技术存在的一些问题。本综述对于生态保护与监测、资源的保护和可持续利用具有一定的参考价值。
关键词:  环境DNA  生态监测  生物多样性  资源保护
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200119002
分类号:P735
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41976094,31872568);中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心重点部署项目(COMS2019Q14);中国科学院国际合作项目(GJHZ1885)
Application of environmental DNA technology in ecological conservation and monitoring
ZHANG Hui1,2,3, XIAN Wei-wei1,2,3
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
Decline in biodiversity, degradation of ecosystem functions, and global climate change are major global problems. Comprehensive and accurate ecological monitoring to identify and clarify biodiversity for ecological conservation and sustainable use is important for preventing further damage to the ecological environment. The development of environmental DNA technology (eDNA) provides a novel method for ecological and biodiversity monitoring. In recent years, eDNA has become a hot topic for research and has been widely used in ecological monitoring internationally. However, eDNA-based research in China is lacking, especially in the field of marine ecological monitoring. This review summarizes the development of eDNA technology and the achievements based on this technology in China and abroad. The review introduces several major aspects, such as the complementarity between eDNA technology and traditional monitoring methods as well as the monitoring of species' life history process, estimation of species abundance, and study of the changes in the structure of the ecosystem based on eDNA technology. The research fields and directions of the application of eDNA technology are explained, and the applicability and importance of eDNA technology in ecological monitoring are revealed. Further, some limitations of eDNA technology are presented. This review can act as a reference for ecological conservation and monitoring as well as for the conservation and sustainable use of resources.
Key words:  environmental DNA  ecological monitoring  biodiversity  resources conservation
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