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引用本文:尤锋,吴志昊.我国海水鱼类染色体操作研究与应用进展[J].海洋科学,2020,44(8):69-84.
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我国海水鱼类染色体操作研究与应用进展
尤锋1,2, 吴志昊1,2
1.中国科学院实验海洋生物学重点实验室 海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237
摘要:
染色体操作技术包括雌核发育及多倍体人工诱导等,可快速纯化性状,获得单性群体、生长快和不育/低育个体,是现代遗传育种和遗传改良的重要技术途径,近年来其应用也越来越广泛。其快速纯化、低育及生物安全的特点在基因编辑、借腹怀胎等前沿技术的研究与应用中也极具价值。本文在简述鱼类染色体操作概念和诱导原理基础上,系统介绍了我国海水鱼类雌核发育、多倍体的人工诱导和生物学机制,及其在遗传育种中的研究进展与生产实践等,以期为染色体操作在海水鱼类新种创制、生物技术中的研究与应用提供参考。
关键词:  雌核发育  三倍体  四倍体  海水鱼类  遗传育种
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200327006
分类号:S917.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31772834);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0901202)
Progress in the study and application of chromosome manip-ulation in marine fishes from China
YOU Feng1,2, WU Zhi-hao1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
Abstract:
Chromosome manipulation technology, including artificial induction of gynogenesis and polyploid, is useful to rapidly purify characteristics and obtain mono-sex, fast growing, low fertility populations. This technology is an important part of modern genetic breeding and improvement and has been widely developed in the recent years. The characteristics of rapid purification, infertility/low fertility, and biosafety are of great value when applying advanced biotechnologies such as fish gene editing and surrogate broodstock. In this study, we presented the concept and principle of fish chromosome manipulation techniques. Further, we introduced research progress in terms of the induction and biological mechanism of gynogenesis and polyploid induction of marine fish in China as well as their application. The present review provided valuable references for genetic breeding and biotechnology research in marine fish using chromosome manipulation techniques.
Key words:  gynogenesis  triploid  tetraploid  marine fishes  genetic breeding
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