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引用本文:刘宗宇,杨丽中,乔守文,石洪源,尤再进,杨乐.山东省滨海沙滩现状调查[J].海洋科学,2020,44(9):121-129.
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山东省滨海沙滩现状调查
刘宗宇1, 杨丽中1, 乔守文1, 石洪源1,2, 尤再进1,2, 杨乐3
1.鲁东大学土木工程学院, 山东 烟台 264025;2.鲁东大学港口海岸防灾减灾研究院, 山东 烟台 264025;3.青建国际集团有限公司, 山东 青岛 266000
摘要:
为了揭示山东滨海沙滩现状,为合理开发、利用和保护沙滩资源提供科学依据,项目组与2019年6月—8月,通过现场观测沙滩现状,收集沙滩的生态环境和其开发状态的资料,利用RTK-GPS高程仪获取沙丘-海滩剖面数据,并结合卫星遥感资料调查分析可知:滨海沙滩总个数为148个,沙滩岸线总长度约335 km,主要分布在烟台、威海、青岛和日照。74%的沙滩受人工干预,干预的方式主要以旅游型开发和渔业性开发为主,其中旅游型开发占比61.5%,渔业性开发占比35.6%。26%的沙滩保持自然状态,主要分布在乡村。在现场调查中发现,沙滩侵蚀较严重的大多为自然形态的沙滩渔业性开发的沙滩。多数沙滩的沙丘以及植被带上已经被建起养殖厂房、度假场所、娱乐设施及抛石护岸等,建筑垃圾、生活垃圾、养殖垃圾、微塑料垃圾等在滩面上屡见不鲜。结合数据及现场调查结果来看,山东省多数滨海沙滩已经处于开发状态,但是由于缺乏科学合理的规划,滨海沙滩的平衡系统已经受到严重威胁,沙滩面临消失的危险,严重影响了滨海沙滩的持续利用与发展。
关键词:  滨海沙滩  海岸侵蚀  防护对策  山东省
DOI:10.11759/hykx20191106005
分类号:P737.1
基金项目:NSFC-山东联合重点基金(U1806227);泰山学者人才工程(TSHW201502050)
Investigation of coastal beaches in Shandong Province
LIU Zong-yu1, YANG Li-zhong1, QIAO Shou-wen1, SHI Hong-yuan1,2, YOU Zai-jin1,2, YANG Le3
1.School of Civil Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China;2.Institute of Ports and Coastal Disaster Mitigation, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, China;3.Qingjian International Group Co., Ltd, Qingdao 266000, China
Abstract:
To reveal the current situation of the coastal beach in the Shandong Province and provide a scientific basis for the rational development, utilization and conservation of the beach resources. From June to August 2019, the project team obtained data on the dune beach profile by observing the current situation of the beach on-site, collecting its ecological environment and development status and other data, using RTK-GPS altimeter, and combining data investigation and analysis with satellite remote sensing, it can be seen that:The total number of coastal beaches is 148, with a total length of approximately 335 km, mainly distributed in Yantai, Weihai, Qingdao, and Rizhao. 74% of the beaches are subject to manual operation, primarily for the development of tourism and fisheries, which accounts for 61.5% of tourism and 35.6% for fisheries. 26% of the beaches, mostly in the countryside remain in a natural state and are created only for residents. In the field investigation, it was found that most of the beaches with serious beach erosion are those with natural form and fishery development, the dunes and vegetation belts of most beaches were built with breeding plants, resorts, recreational facilities, and ripraps. Construction waste, domestic garbage, aquaculture waste, and microplastic waste is common on the beach. From the above data and field survey results, most of the coastal beaches in Shandong Province have been in the state of development. However, due to lack of scientific and reasonable planning, the balance system of the coastal beaches has been seriously threatened, and the beaches are in danger of disappearing, which seriously affects the sustainable utilization and development of the coastal beaches.
Key words:  coastal beach  coastal erosion  protective measures  Shandong Province
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