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引用本文:房晓静,杨圣文,张洪海,高先池,杨桂朋.海洋及其上空大气中有机磷酸酯的研究进展[J].海洋科学,2020,44(9):154-165.
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海洋及其上空大气中有机磷酸酯的研究进展
房晓静1, 杨圣文2, 张洪海1, 高先池1, 杨桂朋1
1.中国海洋大学化学化工学院, 山东 青岛 266100;2.哈尔滨工业大学威海校区, 山东 威海 264209
摘要:
基于全球海洋及其上空大气中关于有机磷酸酯(OPEs)的数据,分析了目前OPEs在全球海洋及其上空大气的分布特征、影响因素以及当前研究存在的不足。总结发现,海水中的OPEs主要来自河流输送,且浓度分布特征表现为由近及远、由浅及深逐渐递减。磷酸三(2-氯乙基)酯(TCEP)、磷酸三(1-氯-2-丙基)酯(TCPP)和磷酸三(1,3-二氯异丙基)酯(TDCPP)三种卤化OPEs是海水中主要污染物;输入到海水中的OPEs经过颗粒沉降等作用沉积到海洋沉积物中,随之,沉积物中的OPEs可能反析出或直接累积,在海洋沉积物中形成一个大的OPEs储存库。分析北太平洋到北冰洋表层沉积物中OPEs的浓度发现,从白令海峡到北冰洋,随着纬度的增加OPEs的浓度也普遍增加,且相对于非卤化OPEs,卤化OPEs更易被运输到偏远海域。总有机碳(TOC)与大洋沉积物中OPEs的浓度无相关性,但与近海海洋沉积物中OPEs的浓度呈正相关,TCEP和磷酸三异丁酯(TiBP)为海洋沉积物中主要污染物;海洋上空大气与水体中的OPEs是不可分割的,海洋上空大气中的OPEs一部分通过大气沉降进入海水,一部分继续迁移到更偏远区域,气团来源是影响其分布的主要因素。对比OPEs在全球海洋上空大气中的浓度分布发现,南北半球并无明显差异,TCEP和TCPP是海洋上空大气中主要污染物。
关键词:  有机磷酸酯(OPEs)  全球海洋  大气  分布特征  影响因素
DOI:10.11759/hykx20191109001
分类号:X55
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0601301);国家自然科学基金(41830534)
Review of organophosphate esters in oceans and atmospheres
FANG Xiao-jing1, YANG Sheng-wen2, ZHANG Hong-hai1, GAO Xian-chi1, YANG Gui-peng1
1.College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;2.Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209, China
Abstract:
Based on the published data on organophosphate esters (OPEs) obtained from the world oceans and the overlying atmospheres, the current distribution characteristics of OPEs in the oceans and atmospheres, the influencing factors of OPEs, and the shortcomings of the current research on OPEs are systematically analyzed. It is concluded that OPEs are transported into seawater mainly through rivers, and their concentration distribution in seawater gradually decreases from inshore to offshore, from surface to deep waters. Three kinds of halogenated OPEs, including tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1, 3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), are the main pollutants in seawater. The OPE input in seawater is deposited into the marine sediments by particulate adsorption and sedimentation, and then, the OPEs in the sediment may decompose or directly accumulate, forming a large OPE reservoir in the marine sediments. An analysis of the OPE concentration in surface sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean reveals that OPE concentrations generally increase with the increase in latitude from the Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean and that halogenated OPEs are more easily transported to remote oceans compared with nonhalogenated OPEs. The total organic carbon (TOC) content has no correlation with the OPE concentration in oceanic sediments, but it has a positive correlation with the OPE concentration in coastal sediments. Moreover, TCEP and triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP) are the main pollutants in marine sediments; the OPEs in the atmospheres over the oceans are inseparable from OPEs in the seawater. Some of the OPEs in the atmospheres over the oceans enter the seawater through atmospheric deposition, and some continue to migrate and transport to more remote areas. The source of the air mass is the main factor affecting the OPE distribution in the atmosphere over the ocean. Comparing the concentration distribution of OPEs in the marine atmosphere shows that no significant difference exists between the northern and southern hemispheres. TCEP and TCPP are the main pollutants in the marine atmosphere.
Key words:  organophosphate esters  global oceans  atmospheres  distribution characteristics  influencing factors
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