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引用本文:牛富强,李智,薛睿超,杨燕明,马丽.海上风电打桩水下噪声测量及其对大黄鱼的影响[J].海洋科学,2021,45(8):60-68.
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海上风电打桩水下噪声测量及其对大黄鱼的影响
牛富强1, 李智2, 薛睿超1, 杨燕明1, 马丽1
1.自然资源部 第三海洋研究所, 福建 厦门 361005;2.长江三峡集团福建能源投资有限责任公司, 福建 福州 350001
摘要:
海上风电场建设期风机打桩会产生高强度的水下噪声,研究水下冲击打桩噪声的监测方法、特性分析及对海洋生物的影响是非常重要的。采用自容式水下声音记录仪,多点同步测量了福建省兴化湾海上风电场二期工程建设期单次完整的水下冲击打桩噪声,从时频域特性进行了分析,并利用最小二乘法拟合得到了打桩声源级和声暴露级。结果表明:水下冲击打桩噪声是典型的低频、高强度的脉冲信号,单个脉冲持续时间约90~100 ms,峰值声源级约209.4±2 dB,声暴露级约197.7±2 dB;主要能量分布在50 Hz~1 kHz频段,750 m测量点的该频段声压级相比海洋环境背景噪声,提高了约40~50 dB。水下冲击打桩噪声频域能量分布与大黄鱼的听觉敏感频段相重叠,对大黄鱼影响程度和范围较大,实际工程应用中宜采用声暴露级作为评价指标。
关键词:  海上风机  水下打桩噪声  声暴露级  大黄鱼  环境影响评价
DOI:10.11759/hykx20201019001
分类号:P733.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41976175);中国长江三峡集团公司资助项目(CTGFB/0002-2018);福建省自然科学基金项目(2020J01696)
Impact of pile driving underwater noise from offshore wind turbines on the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)
NIU Fu-qiang1, LI Zhi2, XUE Rui-chao1, YANG Yan-ming1, MA Li1
1.Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China;2.Fujian Energy Investment Co. Ltd, China Three Gorges Corporation, Fuzhou 350001, China
Abstract:
Pile-driving for wind turbines radiates high-intensity underwater noise during offshore wind farm construction. Therefore, it is imperative to study the measuring methodologies, underwater noise characteristics, and the impact on marine life. In the present study, underwater noise was measured synchronously at multiple stations using a self-contained underwater sound recorder during the entire piling at the construction phase of the Xinghua Bay offshore wind farm phase II project in Fujian Province, China. The sound source level and sound exposure level of noise were obtained by Least-squares fitting after a time and frequency domain analysis. The results showed that underwater noise for piling is a typical low-frequency, high-intensity impulsive noise of a 90 and 100 ms duration, a peak sound source level of 209.4±2 dB, and an average sound exposure level of 197.7±2 dB for a single pulse. The dominant energy of the piling noise was distributed in the 50 Hz to 1 kHz frequency band. The sound pressure level was increased by 40-50 dB in the band at the same measurement station, compared to the ambient noise at 750 m distance from the pile-driving station. Because the energy distribution of underwater piling noise overlaps with the auditory sensitive frequency band of a sizeable yellow croaker in the frequency domain, the piling noise will considerably impact the fish. The sound exposure level should be used as an evaluation index in practical engineering applications.
Key words:  offshore wind turbine  underwater pile driving noise  sound exposure level  large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)  environmental assessment
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