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双锯鱼属(Amphiprion)四种鱼种比较胚胎学研究和进化探讨
张薇,孙志宾,马爱军,夏丹丹,王婷,于宏
1.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛市海水鱼类种子工程与生物技术重点实验室 青岛 266071;2.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;3.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266071
摘要:
在严格控制水温和盐度条件下,对白条双锯鱼(Amphiprion frenatus)野生鱼、眼斑双锯鱼(A.ocellaris)野生鱼、海葵双锯鱼(A.percula)选育种和眼斑双锯鱼(A.ocellaris)选育种的胚胎发育进行观察比较。结果表明,所有双锯鱼几乎均稳定在一个月产卵两次,在相同的生长环境中,不同种类双锯鱼产卵时间相差不大,产卵间隔规律性较强;但胚胎发育时间有较大差别,海葵双锯鱼的选育种胚胎发育时间最长,眼斑双锯鱼的选育种最短。四种双锯鱼有着相同的胚胎发育学特征和孵化期,但胚胎发育时间不同,分别为244h、240h、260h、181h;其中卵裂期到神经胚期的发育时间差小于2h,翻转期至孵化期决定了胚胎发育时间。研究发现,不同双锯鱼胚胎发育时间可能与进化距离有关,且温度、光照周期以及卵质量与形态对其胚胎发育时间有较大影响。本研究的海葵双锯鱼选育种为纯人工选育的后代,在整个繁育过程中与野生种都有较大的差异。人工选育眼斑双锯鱼的胚胎发育时间最短,与野生眼斑双锯鱼差异明显。通过对不同双锯鱼比较胚胎学的研究可以丰富其人工选育技术,确定双锯鱼之间以及双锯鱼与其他鱼类的亲缘关系,为观赏鱼进化学说的发展和新品种选育提供依据。
关键词:  双锯鱼  胚胎发育  比较胚胎学  孵化期  亲缘关系  进化
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20171100302
分类号:Q954.4;S917
基金项目:中国东盟海上合作基金项目,2016—2018;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室“鳌山人才”培养计划项目,2017ASTCP-OS04号;“一带一路”国家水产养殖科技创新合作项目,2018—2020。
STUDIES ON COMPARATIVE EMBRYOLOGY AND DISCUSSION OF EVOLUTIOLOGY IN FOUR VARIETIES OF AMPHIPRION
ZHANG Wei1,2,3,4,5, SUN Zhi-Bin1,2,3,5, MA Ai-Jun1,2,3,5, XIA Dan-Dan1,2,3,5, WANG Ting1,2,3,5, YU Hong1,2,3,5
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences;2.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture;3.Qingdao Key Laboratory for Marine Fish Breeding and Biotechnology, Qingdao 266071, China;4.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;5.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
The embryonic development of Amphiprion frenatus, A. ocellaris, the A. percula of artificial breeding, and the A. ocellaris of artificial breeding are observed and compared under captive condition. The results show that the four varieties of Amphiprion almost all spawn twice monthly. The difference of spawning time is smaller and the regularity of spawning interval is relatively strong of all Amphiprion in the same breeding environment. However, there is significant difference of embryonic development time, in which the longest one is A. percula of artificial breeding and shortest one is A. ocellaris of artificial breeding. The four varieties of Amphiprion have same embryonic development characteristic and incubation period. But the embryonic development duration is different, they are 244h, 240h, 260h, and 181h, respectively. The developmental duration is difference between the cleavage stage and the neurula stage is less than 2h, the period from the turning phase to the hatching phase determines the embryonic development duration. This study indicates that the developmental duration of embryonic development in different Amphiprion may be related to the evolutionary distance. In addition, the temperature, photoperiod, quality and morphology of the eggs have a great influence on the embryonic development duration. In this study, the A. percula of artificial breeding (Picasso) is a purely artificial offspring which have a great difference with the wild. The embryonic developmental duration of the A. ocellaris of artificial breeding (Snowflake) is the shortest, which is significantly different from the wild A. ocellaris. This study can enrich the Amphiprion artificial breeding knowledge, determine the genetic relationship among the different Amphiprion and the genetic relationship between the Amphiprion and other fishes, moreover provide theoretical basis for the development of ornamental fish and the breeding of new varieties.
Key words:  Amphiprion  embryonic development  comparative embryology  hatching period  genetic relationship  evolution
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