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低盐在短时间内对绿潮浒苔(Ulva prolifera)氮磷吸收的动态影响
朱明1, 刘峰2,3, 陈璐4, 刘兆普5
1.淮海工学院海洋生命与水产学院 连云港 222005;2.中国科学院海洋研究所实验海洋生物学重点实验室 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室 青岛 266237;4.上海师范大学生命与环境科学学院 植物种质资源开发中心 上海 200234;5.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院 南京 210095
摘要:
我国黄海出现的绿潮发源于黄海南部苏北辐射沙洲紫菜养殖区,苏北沙洲区濒临的沿岸河网众多,来自沿岸径流的淡水携带大量氮磷等营养盐间歇性入海,导致海水的富营养化并伴随着盐度的周期性波动。本研究通过模拟实验研究低盐度(15和5)对浒苔吸收氮盐(NO3--N和NH4+-N)和磷盐(PO43--P)的影响,主要发现:与盐度30相比,在低盐度(15和5)时,浒苔对NO3--N的1h最大吸收速率(Vmax)和亲和力(Vmax/Ks)分别提高280%和350%左右,半饱和常数(Ks)下降15%左右,并能够维持对NO3--N的高效吸收(24h);盐度15和5时,浒苔对NH4+-N的1h最大吸收速率(Vmax)分别提高40%和200%,亲和力(Vmax/Ks)分别提高20%和180%,Ks分别提高15%和30%,但是盐度降低对NH4+-N的长效吸收产生负面影响,甚至在盐度5条件下出现吸收高浓度NH4+-N后再释放的现象;与盐度30相似,盐度15条件下浒苔能够快速吸收PO43--P,而盐度5则导致藻细胞内的PO43--P在早期阶段快速流失,并在后期不能有效吸收PO43--P。本实验的结果表明,降低盐度有利于浒苔对氮源的快速吸收,在盐度15下浒苔能够实现对硝酸盐和磷盐的高效吸收。
关键词:  绿潮  浒苔  盐度  营养盐  吸收速率
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20180200032
分类号:Q178.1;X171;X55
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室鳌山科技创新计划项目,2016ASKJ02号;国家自然科学基金项目,41876165号;江苏省连云港市科技攻关(现代农业)项目,NYYQ1612号;中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目,QYZDB-SSW-DQC023号;江苏省品牌专业项目,ppzy2015B159号;中国科学院青年创新促进会基金,2015164号;海洋赤潮灾害立体监测技术与应用国家海洋局重点实验室开放研究基金,MATHAB201701号。
THE IMPACT OF A SHORT LOWERED SALINITY ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY GREEN TIDE-FORMING ALGA ULVA PROLIFERA
ZHU Ming1, LIU Feng2,3, CHEN Lu4, LIU Zhao-Pu5
1.College of Marine Life and Fisheries, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005, China;2.CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;4.Development Center of Plant Germplasm Resources, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China;5.College of Resources and Environmental Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
Green tides in the Yellow Sea were found originated in the Pyropia cultivation region of Subei Shoal, northern Jiangsu, China, where many coastal rivers flood into the sea and bring a short and large amount of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus. We studied the dynamic change in the uptake of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate by green tide-forming alga Ulva prolifera under a short and low salinity impact. Three salinity levels at 30, 15, and 5 were simulated. The maximum uptake rate (Vmax), the half-saturation constant Ks, and the affinity (Vmax/Ks) were used. The results show that, compared those of salinity 30, those of low salinities at 15 and 5 showed considerable enhancement in terms of nutrient absorption and affinity. For examples, the maximum uptake rateand the affinity to NO3--N at salinities 15 and 5 in 1h enhanced about 280% and 350%, respectively, and the half-saturation constant decreased by about 15%, which resulted in a continuous efficient uptake of nitrate in 24h. At salinities 15 and 5, the maximum uptake rateof NH4+-N increased by 40% and 200%, the affinity increased by 20% and 180%, and the half-saturation constant (Ks) increased by 15% and 30%, respectively. However, the short lowered salinity resulted in an absorption delay of a long period, and at salinity 5, the U. prolifera thalli could even take high-concentration NH4+-N first and then release it. At salinity 15, U. prolifera could quickly uptake phosphate (PO43--P), which is very similar to that at salinity 30, while at salinity 5, the algae could release phosphate from cells at the early growth stage, causing the inability of absorbing phosphate in later growth stages. Therefore, a lower salinity could benefit U. prolifera for quick uptake of nitrogen sources. Specifically, at salinity 15, the algae could absorb both NO3--N and PO43--P in high efficiency in response to a suddenly reduced salinity.
Key words:  green tides  Ulva prolifera  salinity  nutrition  uptake rate
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